benzine ring (c6h6)

Scientists

The book of science

Tom Sharp


Alphabetical index of scientists

Scientist Year Milestone
Abelson, Philip 1940 Neptunium (atomic number 93)
Adams, John Couch 1846 Discovery of Neptune
Aepinus, Franz 1756 Pyroelectricity
Jabir ibn Aflah 2400 BCE—1820 CE Computing devices
Agassiz, Louis 1840 Ice age
Agricola, Georgius 1529 Fluorine (atomic number 9)
1548 Bismuth (atomic number 83)
Akap’ev, G. N. 1970 Dubnium (atomic number 105)
Alberti, Leon Battista 1413-1420 Perspective
Al-Biruni 2400 BCE—1820 CE Computing devices
D’Alembert, Jean le Rond 1752 D’Alembert’s paradox
Alexanderson, Ernst 1904 Alexanderson alternator
Alhazen (Abū-‘Alī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥaytham) 1025 Optics
Allen, John F. 1937 Superfluidity
Ismail al-Jazari 2400 BCE—1820 CE Computing devices
Jamshīd al-Kāshī 2400 BCE—1820 CE Computing devices
al-Khwārizmī, Muḥammad ibn Mūsā 820 Algebra
Alonso, Carol T. 1974 Seaborgium (atomic number 106)
Alonso, José R. 1974 Seaborgium (atomic number 106)
Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī 2400 BCE—1820 CE Computing devices
Amontons, Guillaume 1699 Tribology
Ampère, André-Marie 1810 Fluorine (atomic number 9)
1811 Iodine (atomic number 53)
1820 Electromagnetism
Anderson, Carl David 1932 Antimatter
de Andrada, José Bonifácio 1817,1821 Lithium (atomic number 3)
Apollonius of Perga 2400 BCE—1820 CE Computing devices
Arago, François 1819 Wave optics
Archimedes 260 BCE Mechanical advantage
Arfwedson, Johan August 1817,1821 Lithium (atomic number 3)
Aristotle 335 BCE Science
Armbruster, Peter 1981 Bohrium (atomic number 107)
1982 Meitnerium (atomic number 109)
1984 Hassium (atomic number 108)
1994 Darmstadtium (atomic number 110)
1994 Roentgenium (atomic number 111)
1996 Copernicium (atomic number 112)
Aserinsky, Eugene 1953 Rapid-eye-movement sleep
Aston, Francis William 1922 Isotope
Avicenna (Ibn-Sīnā) 1025 The Canon of Medicine
Avogadro, Amedeo 1811,1909 Avogadro constant
Baade, Walter 1918 The universe
Babbage, Charles 1822 Difference engine
1946 Computer
Bacon, Francis 1605 Binary number
1620 Scientific method
Baekeland, Leo 1907 Bakelite
von Baer, Karl Ernst 1826 Eggs and embryos
Bagnall, Edward 1890 Aposematism
Bailey, P. D. 2009 Tennessine (atomic number 117)
Balard, Antoine Jérôme 1825,1826 Bromine (atomic number 35)
Banting, Frederick 1921 Insulin
Bardeen, John 1947 Transistor
Barger, George 1914 Neurotransmitters
Barkhausen, Heinrich 1919 Barkhausen effect
Barrow, Isaac 1668,1669 Fundamental theorem of calculus
Bartholin, Rasmus 1669 Birefringence
Bates, Henry Walter 1861 Batesian mimicry
Bateson, William 1904 Genetic linkage
Bayes, Thomas 1763 Bayes’ theorem
Becquerel, Henri 1896 Radioactivity
von Behring, Emil 1890 Antitoxins
Beijerinck, Martinus 1898 Viruses
Bell, Alexander Graham 1876 Telephone
Belousov, Boris Pavlovich 1951 Chemical oscillations
van Beneden, Edouard 1878 Mitosis
Berg, Otto 1908,1925 Rhenium (atomic number 75)
Bergman, Torbern 1770-1774 Manganese (atomic number 25)
1781,1783 Tungsten (atomic number 74)
Bernard, Claude 1865 Regulating the body
Bernoulli, Daniel 1738 Bernoulli’s principle
Bertillon, Alphonse 1893 Anthropometry
Berzelius, Jöns Jacob 1789,1824 Zirconium (atomic number 40)
1791-1910 Titanium (atomic number 22)
1803 Cerium (atomic number 58)
1813 Chemical nomenclature
1817 Lithium (atomic number 3)
1817 Selenium (atomic number 34)
1823 Silicon (atomic number 14)
1829 Thorium (atomic number 90)
1830 Vanadium (atomic number 23)
Bessel, Friedrich 1838 Distance to a star
Best, Charles Herbert 1921 Insulin
Bethe, Hans 1920 Stellar evolution
1948 Quantum electrodynamics
Binet, Alfred 1904 Intelligence testing
Birkeland, Kristian 1908-1958 Van Allen belts
Bi Sheng 1040 Movable-type printing
Bjerknes, Jacob 1920 Weather forecasting
Bjerknes, Vilhelm 1920 Weather forecasting
Black, Joseph 1755 Magnesium (atomic number 12)
1761 Latent heat
Bloch, Felix 1930 Magnon
Blomstrand, Christian Wilhelm 1801 Niobium (atomic number 41)
Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich 1790,1808 Strontium (atomic number 38)
Bohr, Niels 1913 Atom
1913 Bohr magneton
de Boisbaudran, Paul-Émile Lecoq 1875 Gallium (atomic number 31)
1879 Samarium (atomic number 62)
1886 Dysprosium (atomic number 66)
1890-1901 Europium (atomic number 63)
Bolyai, János 1829 Non-Euclidean geometry
Boltwood, Bertram 1907 Dating rocks
Boltzmann, Ludwig 1908 Brownian motion
Bonner, John Tyler 1947 Slime-mold bodies
Boole, George 1847 Boolean algebra
Bose, Satyendra Nath 1925 Bose-Einstein condensate
Boveri, Theodor 1902 Boveri-Sutton chromosome theory
Boyle, Robert 1661 Chymistry
1662 Boyle’s law
Bradley, James 1729 Aberration of light
Brahe, Tycho 1572 Supernova
Brahmagupta 628 Zero
Brand, Hennig 1669 Phosphorus (atomic number 15)
Brande, William Thomas 1817,1821 Lithium (atomic number 3)
Brandt, Georg 1735 Cobalt (atomic number 27)
Branly, Edouard 1890 Coherer
Brattain, Walter Houser 1947 Transistor
Braun, Karl Ferdinand 1874,1904 Crystal diode
1905 Phased array
Bridges, Calvin 1910 Genes
Broca, Paul 1861 Mapping speech
de Broglie, Louis 1925 Wave-particle duality
Brown, Robert 1831 Cell
1908 Brownian motion
Brownrigg, William 1750 Platinum (atomic number 78)
Brugmans, Sebald Justinus 1778,1845 Diamagnetism
Brunelleschi, Filippo 1413-1420 Perspective
Bunsen, Robert 1855 Bunsen burner
1859 Analytical spectroscopy
1860,1882 Caesium (atomic number 55)
1861 Rubidium (atomic number 37)
Burnet, Frank Macfarlane 1949 Immune tolerance
Bussy, Antoine 1828 Beryllium (atomic number 4)
Bütschli, Otto 1878 Mitosis
Cai Lun 105 Paper
y Cajal, Santiago Ramón 1889 Nervous system
Camerarius, Rudolf Jakob 1694 Plant sexuality
Calmette, Albert 1895 Antivenom
1921 Tuberculosis vaccine
Calvin, Melvin 1946 Photosynthesis
Carnot, Nicolas Léonard Sadi 1847 Laws of thermodynamics
Carothers, Wallace 1935 Nylon
Cassini, Giovanni Domenico 1671 Planetary distances
Cavendish, Henry 1781 Electric conductivity
1784 Hydrogen and water (atomic number 1)
1798 ‘Weighing’ the world
Celsius, Anders 1742 Centigrade scale
Chadwick, James 1932 Neutron
Champollion, Jean François 1822 Deciphering hieroglyphics
Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan 1931 White dwarfs
Chang, Min Chueh 1944-1960 The pill
Chelnokov, L. P. 1970 Dubnium (atomic number 105)
Chinese, Han dynasty 206 BCE Compass
200 Woodblock printing
Chinese, Tang dynasty 9th century Gunpowder
10th century Rocket
Choppin, Gregory R. 1955 Mendelevium (atomic number 101)
Christin, Jean-Pierre 1742 Centigrade scale
Claus, Karl Ernst 1844 Ruthenium (atomic number 44)
Clausius, Rudolf 1847 Laws of thermodynamics
Cleve, Per Teodor 1868-1895 Helium (atomic number 2)
1878-1879 Holmium (atomic number 67)
1879 Thulium (atomic number 69)
Coandă, Henri 1934 Coandă effect
Cohen, Stanley 1952 Nerve growth
Colton, Frank B. 1944-1960 The pill
Compton, Arthur Holly 1923 Compton scattering
Corson, Dale R. 1940 Astatine (atomic number 85)
Coryell, Charles D. 1945 Promethium (atomic number 61)
Coster, Dirk 1923 Hafnium (atomic number 72)
Copernicus, Nicolaus 1543 Heliocentrism
de Coriolis, Gaspard-Gustave 1835 Coriolis effect
Cotton, Aimé 1845-1913 Magneto-optic and electro-optic effects
de Coulomb, Charles-Augustin 1785 Coulomb’s law
Courtois, Bernard 1811 Iodine (atomic number 53)
Courtenay-Latimer, Marjorie 1938 Coelacanth
Cowan, Clyde 1956 Neutrino
Cranston, John Arnold 1913-1918 Protactinium (atomic number 91)
Crawford, Adair 1790,1808 Strontium (atomic number 38)
Crick, Francis 1953 DNA structure
Christin, Jean-Pierre 1742 Centigrade scale
Cronstedt, Axel Fredrik 1751 Nickel (atomic number 28)
Crookes, William 1861-1862 Thallium (atomic number 81)
1869-1875 Crookes tube
1873 Crookes radiometer
Cruikshank, William 1790,1808 Strontium (atomic number 38)
Curie, Jacques 1880,1881 Piezoelectricity
Curie, Marie 1896 Radioactivity
Curie, Pierre 1880,1881 Piezoelectricity
1896 Radioactivity
1898 Polonium (atomic number 84)
1898 Radium (atomic number 88)
1899-1910 Radon (atomic number 86)
Cuvier, Georges 1796 Comparative anatomy
Dale, Henry Hallett 1914 Neurotransmitters
Dalton, John 1808 Atomic theory
Dart, Raymond 1925 Tuang child
Dalgarno, George 1647-1678 Philosophical language: Ars signorum
Darwin, Charles 1859 Origin of species
Davaine, Casimir 1876 Bacillus anthracis
Davy, Humphry 1802-1879 Incandescent light
1807 Potassium (atomic number 19)
1807 Sodium (atomic number 11)
1808 Calcium (atomic number 20)
1808 Boron (atomic number 5)
1808 Barium (atomic number 56)
1808 Magnesium (atomic number 12)
1808 Strontium (atomic number 38)
1810 Chlorine (atomic number 17)
1810 Fluorine (atomic number 9)
1811 Iodine (atomic number 53)
1821 Electric conductivity
1823 Silicon (atomic number 14)
Debierne, André-Louis 1899-1910 Radon (atomic number 86)
1899,1902 Actinium (atomic number 89)
Delafontaine, Marc 1878-1879 Holmium (atomic number 67)
Delbrück, Max 1943 Bacterial genes
Delisle, Joseph-Nicolas 1732 Delisle scale
Demarçay, Eugène-Anatole 1890-1901 Europium (atomic number 63)
Dement, William C. 1953 Rapid-eye-movement sleep
Demin, A. G. 1970 Dubnium (atomic number 105)
Desaga, Peter 1855 Bunsen burner
Descartes, René 1637 Cartesian coordinates
Deville, Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire 1801 Niobium (atomic number 41)
Diesel, Rudolf 1893 Diesel engine
Dioscorides, Pedanius 70 AD Traditional medicine
Dirac, Paul 1928 Dirac equation
1932 Antimatter
Djerassi, Carl 1944-1960 The pill
Dobzhansky, Theodosius 1918 Neo-Darwinism
Domagk, Gerhard 1908,1935 Sulfanilamide
Donets, E. D. 1958 Nobelium (atomic number 102)
Doppler, Christian 1842 Doppler effect
Dorn, Friedrich Ernst 1899-1910 Radon (atomic number 86)
Drebbel, Cornelis 1590-1608 Microscope and telescope
1620 Submarine
Druin, V. A. 1970 Dubnium (atomic number 105)
Dubois, Eugène 1891 Java man
Dumortier, Barthélemy Charles Joseph 1839 Cell theory
Dunwoody, Henry Harrison Chase 1874,1904 Crystal diode
Dyson, Freeman 1948 Quantum electrodynamics
Eddington, Arthur 1920 Stellar evolution
Edison, Thomas 1802-1879 Incandescent light
1873,1880 Thermionic emission
1876 Industrial research laboratory
1888-1926 Cinematography
Edson, Marcellus Gilmore 1884 Peanut butter
Ehrlich, Paul 1910 Chemotherapy
Eichengrün, Arthur 1897 Aspirin
Einstein, Albert 1900 Quanta
1905 Special relativity
1908 Brownian motion
1915 General relativity
1917-1960 Stimulated emission
1925 Bose-Einstein condensate
Ekeberg, Anders Gustaf 1802 Tantalum (atomic number 73)
Elhuyar, Juan José 1781,1783 Tungsten (atomic number 74)
Elhuyar, Fausto 1781,1783 Tungsten (atomic number 74)
Elsasser, Walter M. 1946 Dynamo theory
Enders, John Franklin 1955 Polio vaccine
Eratosthenes 240 BCE Geodesy
Ermakov, V. A. 1958 Nobelium (atomic number 102)
Eskola, Kari 1969 Rutherfordium (atomic number 104)
1970 Dubnium (atomic number 105)
Eskola, Pirkko 1969 Rutherfordium (atomic number 104)
1970 Dubnium (atomic number 105)
Esmark, Morten Thrane 1829 Thorium (atomic number 90)
Euclid 300 BCE Geometry
Euler, Leonhard 1736 Graph theory
1736-1895 Topology
1758 Euler characteristic
Fahrenheit, Daniel Gabriel 1724 Fahrenheit scale
Fajans, Kazimierz 1913 Radioactive displacement law
Faraday, Michael 1820 Electromagnetism
1823 Liquefaction of gases
1825 Benzene
1831 Faraday’s law of induction
1831 Faraday wave
1834 Laws of electrolysis
1834 Ion
1836 Faraday cage
1845 Diamagnetism
1845-1913 Magneto-optic and electro-optic effects
Fefilov, B. V. 1970 Dubnium (atomic number 105)
de Fermat, Pierre 1654 Probability theory
1662 Fermat’s principle
Fermi, Enrico 1942 Nuclear energy
Fessenden, Reginald 1901 Heterodyne
1902 Hot wire barretter
1903 Electrolytic detector
1906 AM broadcasting
Feynman, Richard 1948 Quantum electrodynamics
Fibonacci (Leonardo Pisano Bigollo) 1202 Number system
Fischer, Herman Emil 1894 Enzyme specificity
Fisher, Ronald 1918 Neo-Darwinism
FitzGerald, George Francis 1889 Length contraction
Fleming, Alexander 1928 Penicillin
Fleming, John Ambrose 1904 Fleming valve
Flemming, Walther 1878 Mitosis
Flyorov, Georgy 1961-1971 Lawrencium (atomic number 103)
1970 Dubnium (atomic number 105)
Folger, H. 1984 Hassium (atomic number 108)
1994 Darmstadtium (atomic number 110)
1994 Roentgenium (atomic number 111)
1996 Copernicium (atomic number 112)
de Forest, Lee 1906-1912 Triode
Foucault, Léon 1851 Foucault’s pendulum
della Francesca, Piero 1413-1420 Perspective
Franklin, Benjamin 1747 Electric charge
von Fraunhofer, Joseph 1814 Spectral lines
Fresnel, Augustin-Jean 1678,1816 Huygens–Fresnel principle
1819 Wave optics
von Frisch, Karl 1935 Instincts
1945 Dancing bees
Frisch, Otto Robert 1942 Nuclear energy
Freud, Sigmund 1895 Libido
Gabor, Dennis 1947 Holography
Gadolin, Johan 1794-1843 Yttrium (atomic number 39)
Gahn, Johan Gottlieb 1770-1774 Manganese (atomic number 25)
1817 Selenium (atomic number 34)
Galambos, Robert 1940 Bat echolocation
Galen 180 Medical research
Galilei, Galileo 1610 Observational astronomy
1638 Kinematics
Galilei, Vincenzo 1637 Mersenne’s laws
Galle, Johann Gottfried 1846 Discovery of Neptune
Galton, Francis 1889 Measuring individuals
Garrod, Archibald 1909 Inborn errors of metabolism
Gascoigne, William 1638 Micrometer
Gauss, Carl Friedrich 1801 Discovery of an asteroid
Gavrilov, K. A. 1970 Dubnium (atomic number 105)
Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis 1808 Boron (atomic number 5)
1811 Iodine (atomic number 53)
1823 Silicon (atomic number 14)
Geiger, Hans 1935 Geiger counter
Geißler, Heinrich 1857 Geissler tube
Gelmo, Paul 1908,1935 Sulfanilamide
Gessner, Conrad 1565 Fossils
Geoffroy, Claude François 1753 Bismuth (atomic number 83)
Ghiorso, Albert 1944 Curium (atomic number 96)
1944 Americium (atomic number 95)
1949 Berkelium (atomic number 97)
1950 Californium (atomic number 98)
1952 Einsteinium (atomic number 99)
1952 Fermium (atomic number 100)
1952 Mendelevium (atomic number 101)
1958 Nobelium (atomic number 102)
1961-1971 Lawrencium (atomic number 103)
1969 Rutherfordium (atomic number 104)
1970 Dubnium (atomic number 105)
1974 Seaborgium (atomic number 106)
Gibbs, Josiah Willard 1873 Gibbs free energy
1876 Chemical potential
Gilbert, William 1600 Magnetism
Giesel, Friedrich Oskar 1899,1902 Actinium (atomic number 89)
Glendenin, Lawrence E. 1945 Promethium (atomic number 61)
Gmelin, Leopold 1825,1826 Bromine (atomic number 35)
Goldschmidt, Victor 1937 Goldschmidt classification
Gödel, Kurt 1931 Incompleteness theorems
Göhring, Oswald Helmuth 1913-1918 Protactinium (atomic number 91)
Golgi, Camillo 1889 Nervous system
Gordon, James P. 1917-1960 Stimulated emission
Gram, Hans Christian 1884 Gram staining
Gregor, William 1791-1910 Titanium (atomic number 22)
Gregory, James 1668,1669 Fundamental theorem of calculus
Grew, Nehemiah 1670,1886 Palynology
1684 Fingerprint
Griffin, Donald 1940 Bat echolocation
Guérin, Camille 1921 Tuberculosis vaccine
Gutenberg, Johannes 1455 Movable-type printing
Guthrie, Frederick 1873,1880 Thermionic emission
Haber, Fritz 1909 Synthesis of ammonia
Hadley, George 1735 Trade winds
Hahn, Otto 1913-1918 Protactinium (atomic number 91)
1942 Nuclear fission
Haldane, J. B. S. 1918 Neo-Darwinism
Hall, James 1797 Catastrophist geology
Halley, Edmond 1705 Halley’s comet
Hankin, Ernest Hanbury 1896 Preventing cholera
Harris, James Andrew 1969 Rutherfordium (atomic number 104)
1970 Dubnium (atomic number 105)
Harvey, Bernard G. 1955 Mendelevium (atomic number 101)
Harvey, William 1628 Circulation of the blood
Hatchett, Charles 1801 Niobium (atomic number 41)
Heisenberg, Werner 1925 Wave-particle duality
1927 Uncertainty principle
Hellriegel, Hermann 1888 Nitrogen fixation
d’Herelle, Félix 1915,1917 Bacteriophage
Hermann, Karl Samuel Leberecht 1817 Cadmium (atomic number 48)
Herschel, William 1781 Discovery of Uranus
Hero of Alexandria (Heron) 70 Windmill
Hertz, Heinrich 1896 Radio
1904 Telemobiloscope
Hertzsprung, Ejnar 1920 Stellar evolution
Hess, Victor Francis 1911 Cosmic rays
Heßberger, Fritz Peter 1981 Bohrium (atomic number 107)
1982 Meitnerium (atomic number 109)
1984 Hassium (atomic number 108)
1994 Darmstadtium (atomic number 110)
1994 Roentgenium (atomic number 111)
1996 Copernicium (atomic number 112)
von Hevesy, Georg 1913-1918 Protactinium (atomic number 91)
1942 Nuclear fission
Hingmann, R. 1984 Hassium (atomic number 108)
Hipparchus 134 BCE Astronomy
Hippocrates 400 BCE Medicine
Hisinger, Wilhelm 1803 Cerium (atomic number 58)
Hittorf, Johann Wilhelm 1869 Cathode ray
Hjelm, Peter Jacob 1778,1781 Molybdenum (atomic number 42)
Hodgkin, Alan Lloyd 1952 Nerve impulses
Hoffmann, Felix 1897 Aspirin
Hofmann, Sigurd 1981 Bohrium (atomic number 107)
1982 Meitnerium (atomic number 109)
1984 Hassium (atomic number 108)
1994 Darmstadtium (atomic number 110)
1994 Roentgenium (atomic number 111)
1996 Copernicium (atomic number 112)
Hogg, John 1860 Protist
Hope, Thomas Charles 1790,1808 Strontium (atomic number 38)
Hooke, Robert 1665 Cell
1673 Microorganisms
1682 Memory
Hopkins, Frederick Gowland 1906 Vitamins
Horrocks, Jeremiah 1639 Transit of Venus
Hubble, Edwin 1918 The universe
1929 Expanding universe
Hulet, E. Kenneth 1974 Seaborgium (atomic number 106)
Hülsmeyer, Christian 1904 Telemobiloscope
von Humboldt, Alexander 1799 Humboldt’s voyage
Hunter, John 1796 Comparative anatomy
Hunter, Matthew 1791-1910 Titanium (atomic number 22)
Hutton, James 1785 Earth cycles
1797 Catastrophist geology
Huxley, Andrew 1952 Nerve impulses
Huxley, Thomas Henry 1846-1868 Protoplasm
1860 Archaeopteryx
Huygens, Christiaan 1656 Rings of Saturn
1657 Pendulum clock
1678,1816 Huygens–Fresnel principle
1817 Kater’s pendulum
Hyder Ali 1780 Mysorean rockets
Ikeda, Kikunae 1908 Umami
James, Charles 1907 Lutetium (atomic number 71)
James, Ralph A. 1944 Curium (atomic number 96)
1944 Americium (atomic number 95)
Janssen, Pierre 1868-1895 Helium (atomic number 2)
Janssen, Zacharias 1590-1608 Microscope and telescope
Jenner, Edward 1796 Vaccination
Joliot-Curie, Frédéric 1935 Induced radioactivity
Joliot-Curie, Irène 1935 Induced radioactivity
Joule, James Prescott 1842 Magnetostriction
1847 Laws of thermodynamics
Kapitsa, Pyotr 1937 Superfluidity
Kater, Henry 1817 Kater’s pendulum
Kekulé, August 1865 Benzene ring
Keller, J. 1984 Hassium (atomic number 108)
Kelvin, William Thomson Lord 1848 Kelvin scale
Kennedy, Joseph W. 1940 Plutonium (atomic number 94)
Kepler, Johannes 1609 Planetary orbits
Kerr, John 1845-1913 Magneto-optic and electro-optic effects
Kharitonov, Yu. P. 1970 Dubnium (atomic number 105)
Kidston, Robert 1670,1886 Palynology
Kirchhoff, Gustav 1859 Analytical spectroscopy
1860,1882 Caesium (atomic number 55)
1861 Rubidium (atomic number 37)
Kitaibel, Pál 1782 Tellurium (atomic number 52)
Kitasato, Shibasaburō 1890 Antitoxins
Klaproth, Martin Heinrich 1782 Tellurium (atomic number 52)
1789,1824 Zirconium (atomic number 40)
1789,1841 Uranium (atomic number 92)
1791-1910 Titanium (atomic number 22)
1803 Cerium (atomic number 58)
von Kleist, Ewald Georg 1745-1746 Leyden jar
Kleitman, Nathaniel 1953 Rapid-eye-movement sleep
von Kobell, Wolfgang Franz 1801 Niobium (atomic number 41)
Koch, Robert 1854,1884 Vibrio cholerae
1876 Bacillus anthracis
1882 Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Kolesov, I. V. 1970 Dubnium (atomic number 105)
Krebs, Hans Adolf 1937 Citric-acid cycle
Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste 1809 Acquired characteristics
Lambert, Johann Heinrich 1768 Pi
Lamy, Claude-Auguste 1861-1862 Thallium (atomic number 81)
Landsteiner, Karl 1901 Blood groups
Langlet, Nils Abraham 1868-1895 Helium (atomic number 2)
Langmuir, Irving 1906-1912 Triode
Laplace, Pierre-Simon 1796 Origin of our solar system
Larsh, Almon 1961-1971 Lawrencium (atomic number 103)
Lartet, Édouard 1834 Cro-Magnons
Lartet, Louis 1834 Cro-Magnons
Latimer, Robert M. 1961-1971 Lawrencium (atomic number 103)
Laveran, Charles Louis Alphonse 1897 Malarial parasite
Lavoisier, Antoine 1774 Combustion (atomic number 8)
1774 Conservation of mass
1787 Chemical nomenclature
1823 Silicon (atomic number 14)
Leavitt, Henrietta Swan 1918 The universe
Lee, Tsung-Dao 1956 Parity violation
van Leeuwenhock, Antonie 1673 Microorganisms
1719 Cell
Lehmann, Inge 1936 Inner core
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm 1647-1678 Philosophical language: Lingua generalis
1679 Binary number
1684 Calculus
2400 BCE—1820 CE Computing devices: Stepped Reckoner
Lemaître, Georges 1929 Expanding universe
Le Prince, Louis 1888-1927 Cinematography
Levi-Montalcini, Rita 1952 Nerve growth
Lewis, Gilbert N. 1916 Chemical bond
Lhuilier, Antoine-Jean 1736-1895 Topology
Liang Lingzan 2400 BCE—1820 CE Computing devices
Libby, Willard 1947 Radiocarbon dating
von Lindemann, Ferdinand 1768 Pi
Linnaeus, Carl 1735 Naming species
Lippershey, Hans 1590-1608 Microscope and telescope
Lippmann, Gabriel 1880,1881 Piezoelectricity
Lister, Joseph 1865 Antiseptic surgery
Listing, Johann Benedict 1736-1895 Topology
Lobachevsky, Nicolai 1829 Non-Euclidean geometry
Lobanov, Yu. V. 1970 Dubnium (atomic number 105)
Lockyer, Norman 1868-1895 Helium (atomic number 2)
Lodwick, Francis 1647-1678 Philosophical language: Common Writing
Loewi, Otto 1914 Neurotransmitters
Lorentz, Hendrik 1904 Lorentz transformations
Lorenz, Konrad 1935 Instincts
Lo Surdo, Antonino 1845-1913 Magneto-optic and electro-optic effects
Lougheed, Ronald W. 1974 Seaborgium (atomic number 106)
Lovelace, Ada 1822 The first computer program
Löwig, Carl Jacob 1825,1826 Bromine (atomic number 35)
Lu Ban 5th century BCE Kite
Lumière, Auguste and Louis 1888-1927 Cinematography
Luria, Salvador 1943 Bacterial genes
Lyell, Charles 1830 Principles of geology
MacKenzie, Kenneth Ross 1940 Astatine (atomic number 85)
Magnus, Heinrich Gustav 1672,1742,1852 Magnus effect
Maiman, Theodore Harold 1917-1960 Stimulated emission
Majorana, Ettore 1935 Majorana fermion
Malthus, Thomas Robert 1798 Population pressure
Manson, Patrick 1897 Malarial parasite
Marangoni, Carlo 1855,1865 Marangoni effect
Marconi, Guglielmo 1896 Radio
1896,1902 Magnetic detector
Marggraf, Andreas Sigismund 1764 Fluorine (atomic number 9)
de Marignac, Jean Charles Galissard 1801 Niobium (atomic number 41)
1878,1907 Ytterbium (atomic number 70)
1880 Gadolinium (atomic number 64)
Marker, Russell Earl 1944-1960 The pill
Marten, Benjamin 1882 Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Matuyama, Motonori 1929 Geomagnetic reversals
Maudslay, Henry 1638 Micrometer
Maxwell, James Clerk 1656 Rings of Saturn
1864 Maxwell’s equations
McClintock, Barbara 1951 Jumping genes
McCormick, Katharine 1944-1960 The pill
McCulloch, Warren Sturgis 1943 Neural networks
McMillan, Edwin 1940 Neptunium (atomic number 93)
1940 Plutonium (atomic number 94)
Medawar, Peter 1949 Immune tolerance
Meissner, Walther 1933 Meissner effect
Meitner, Lise 1913-1918 Protactinium (atomic number 91)
1942 Nuclear fission
Mendel, Gregor Johann 1865 Laws of inheritance
Mendeleev, Dmitri 1869 Periodic table
1875 Gallium (atomic number 31)
1879 Scandium (atomic number 21)
1886 Germanium (atomic number 32)
Mercator, Gerardus 1569 Mercator projection
Mersenne, Marin 1637 Mersenne’s laws
Metchnikoff, Élie 1882 Cellular immunity
Metius, Jacob 1590-1608 Microscope and telescope
Michell, John 1798 ‘Weighing’ the world
Michelson, Albert A. 1887 Michelson-Morley experiment
Mikheev, V. L. 1961-1971 Lawrencium (atomic number 103)
Milanković, Milutin 1914 Climate cycles
Miller, Stanley 1953 Abiogenesis
Minard, Charles Joseph 1644-1869 Infographics
Miramontes, Luis E. 1944-1960 The pill
Misener, Don 1937 Superfluidity
Möbius, August Ferdinand 1736-1895 Topology
von Mohl, Hugo 1839 Cell theory
1846 Protoplasm
Mohorovičić, Andrija 1906 Earth interior
Moissan, Henri 1886 Fluorine (atomic number 9)
Morgan, Leon O. 1944 Americium (atomic number 95)
Morgan, Thomas Hunt 1910 Genes
Morgenstern, Oskar 1944 Game theory
Morland, Samuel 2400 BCE—1820 CE Computing devices
Morley, Edward W. 1887 Michelson-Morley experiment
Mosander, Carl Gustaf 1794-1843 Yttrium (atomic number 39)
1839 Cerium (atomic number 58)
1839 Lanthanum (atomic number 57)
1843 Terbium (atomic number 65)
1843 Erbium (atomic number 68)
Moseley, Henry 1913 Atomic battery
Mouton, Henri 1845-1913 Magneto-optic and electro-optic effects
Mozi 5th century BCE Kite
Müller, Fritz 1878 Müllerian mimicry
Müller, Gerhard Friedrich 1743 Ethnography
Muller, Hermann Joseph 1910 Genes
Müller, Paul Hermann 1939 DDT
Müller, Walther 1935 Geiger counter
Münzenberg, Gottfried 1981 Bohrium (atomic number 107)
1982 Meitnerium (atomic number 109)
1984 Hassium (atomic number 108)
1994 Darmstadtium (atomic number 110)
1994 Roentgenium (atomic number 111)
van Musschenbroek, Pieter 1745-1746 Leyden jar
Nagarjuna 1669 Zinc (atomic number 30)
Napier, John 1614 Logarithms
2400 BCE—1820 CE Computing devices
1617 Binary number
von Neumann, John 1944 Game theory
1946 Computer
Newton, Isaac 1666 Theory of color
1671 Calculus
1672,1742,1852 Magnus effect
1687 Principia Mathematica
1701 Newton scale
Nightingale, Florence 1644-1869 Infographics
Nilson, Lars Fredrik 1879 Scandium (atomic number 21)
Ninov, Victor 1994 Darmstadtium (atomic number 110)
1994 Roentgenium (atomic number 111)
1996 Copernicium (atomic number 112)
Nitschke, Joachim Michael 1974 Seaborgium (atomic number 106)
Nobel, Alfred 1867 Dynamite
Noddack, Walter 1908,1925 Rhenium (atomic number 75)
Nurmia, Matti 1969 Rutherfordium (atomic number 104)
1970 Dubnium (atomic number 105)
1974 Seaborgium (atomic number 106)
Ochsenfeld, Robert 1933 Meissner effect
Odhner, Willgodt Theophil 2400 BCE—1820 CE Computing devices
Ogawa, Masataka 1908,1925 Rhenium (atomic number 75)
Ohm, Georg 1827 Ohm’s law
Oldham, Richard Dixon 1906 Earth interior
Onnes, Heike Kamerlingh 1911 Superconductivity
Oort, Jan 1950 Oort cloud
Ørsted, Hans Christian 1820 Electromagnetism
1821,1834 Thermoelectric effect
1825,1827 Aluminium (atomic number 13)
Oughtred, William 2400 BCE—1820 CE Computing devices
Owen, Richard 1842 Dinosaur
1860 Archaeopteryx
Owens, Robert Bowie 1899-1910 Radon (atomic number 86)
Pacini, Filippo 1854,1884 Vibrio cholerae
Palmieri, Luigi 1868-1895 Helium (atomic number 2)
Pander, Heinz Christian 1817 Germ layers
Paracelsus 1526 Bismuth (atomic number 83), Zinc (atomic number 30)
1538 Toxicology
Parson, Alfred Lauck 1915 Parson magneton
Parsons, William 1845 Spiral galaxies
Pascal, Blaise 2400 BCE—1820 CE Computing devices
1643 Atmospheric pressure
1654 Probability theory
Paschen, Friedrich 1889 Paschen’s law
Pasteur, Louis 1878 Germ theory
1880-1881 Anthrax vaccine
1881 Streptococcus pneumoniae
1885 Rabies vaccine
Pauli, Wolfgang 1956 Neutrino
Pauling, Linus 1949 Sickle-cell disease
Pavlov, Ivan 1904 Conditioned reflexes
Peckham, George and Elizabeth 1889 Aggressive mimicry
Peierls, Rudolf 1942 Nuclear energy
Péligot, Eugène-Melchoir 1789,1841 Uranium (atomic number 92)
Peltier, Jean Charles Athanase 1834 Peltier effect
Perey, Marguerite 1939 Francium (atomic number 87)
Perkin, William Henry 1856 Mauve
Perrier, Carlo 1937 Technetium (atomic number 43)
Perrin, Jean Baptiste 1811,1909 Avogadro constant
1908 Brownian motion
Piaget, Jean 1924 Child development
Piazzi, Giuseppe 1801 Discovery of an asteroid
Picard, Jean 1671 Surveying the earth
Pickard, Greenleaf Whittier 1874,1904 Crystal diode
Pincus, Gregory 1944-1960 The pill
Pirro, Jean 1839-1887 International auxiliary language: Universalglot
Pitts, Walter 1943 Neural networks
Planck, Max 1900 Planck constant
1900 Quanta
Playfair, William 1644-1869 Infographics
Prandtl, Ludwig 1904 Boundary layer
Priestley, Joseph 1774 Combustion (Oxygen - atomic number 8)
Prout, William 1815 Prout’s hypothesis
Poincaré, Henri 1736-1895 Topology
1903 Chaos theory
1904 Lorentz transformations
Poleni, Giovanni 2400 BCE—1820 CE Computing devices
Pollender, Aloys 1876 Bacillus anthracis
Power, Henry 1662 Boyle’s law
de Prony, Gaspard 1817 Kater’s pendulum
Poppensieker, Klaus 1982 Meitnerium (atomic number 109)
1984 Hassium (atomic number 108)
Ptolemy, Claudius 140 Geocentrism
Punnett, Reginald 1904 Genetic linkage
Purkyně, Jan Evangelista 1846-1868 Protoplasm
Pythagoras 495 BCE Proof of the Pythagorean theorem
1637 Mersenne’s laws
Qvist, Bengt Andersson 1778,1781 Molybdenum (atomic number 42)
Ramsay, William 1868-1895 Helium (atomic number 2)
1894 Argon (atomic number 18)
1898 Krypton (atomic number 36)
1898 Neon (atomic number 10)
1898 Xenon (atomic number 54)
1899-1910 Radon (atomic number 86)
Rayer, Pierre François Olive 1876 Bacillus anthracis
Rayleigh, John William Strutt, Lord 1894 Argon (atomic number 18)
de Réaumur, René Antoine Ferchault 1730 Réaumur scale
Redi, Francesco 1668 Parasites
Reich, Ferdinand 1863 Indium (atomic number 49)
von Reichenstein, Franz-Joseph Müller 1782 Tellurium (atomic number 52)
Reines, Frederick 1956 Neutrino
Willibrord Reisdorf 1981 Bohrium (atomic number 107)
1982 Meitnerium (atomic number 109)
1984 Hassium (atomic number 108)
Reynolds, Osborne 1851 Reynolds number
Remak, Robert 1839 Cell theory
Richer, Jean 1671 Gravimetry
Richter, Hieronymous Theodor 1863 Indium (atomic number 49)
Riemann, Bernhard 1829 Non-Euclidean geometry
del Río, Andrés Manuel 1803 Vanadium (atomic number 23)
Robbins, Frederick Chapman 1955 Polio vaccine
Robins, Benjamin 1672,1742,1852 Magnus effect
Rock, John 1944-1960 The pill
Roloff, Johann Christoff Heinrich 1817 Cadmium (atomic number 48)
Rømer, Ole 1676 Speed of light
1701 Rømer scale
Röntgen, Wilhelm 1895 X-rays
Roscoe, Henry Enfield 1867 Vanadium (atomic number 23)
Rose, Heinrich 1801 Niobium (atomic number 41)
Rosenkranz, George 1944-1960 The pill
Ross, Ronald 1897 Malarial parasite
Roux, Pierre Paul Émile 1885 Rabies vaccine
Russell, Henry Norris 1920 Stellar evolution
Rutherford, Daniel 1772 Nitrogen (atomic number 7)
Rutherford, Ernest 1896 Radioactivity
1896,1902 Magnetic detector
1913 Atom
1899-1910 Radon (atomic number 86)
Sabin, Albert 1955 Polio vaccine
Christoph-Clemens Sahm 1981 Bohrium (atomic number 107)
1982 Meitnerium (atomic number 109)
Salk, Jonas 1955 Polio vaccine
Santorio, Santorio 1614 Metabolism
Sanger, Margaret 1944-1960 The pill
Saunders, Edith Rebecca 1904 Genetic linkage
Schaaffhausen, Hermann 1856 Neanderthal man
Schiaparelli, Giovanni 1877 Canals on Mars
Schipfer, Joseph 1839-1887 International auxiliary language: Communicationssprache
Schleiden, Matthias Jakob 1839 Cell theory
Scheele, Carl Wilhelm 1774 Combustion (Oxygen - atomic number 8)
1770-1774 Manganese (atomic number 25)
1774,1808 Barium (atomic number 56)
1774,1810 Chlorine (atomic number 17)
1778,1781 Molybdenum (atomic number 42)
1810 Chlorine
Schleyer, Johann Martin 1839-1887 International auxiliary language: Volapük
Schmidt, Johannes 1922 Eel metamorphosis
Karl-Heinz Schmidt 1981 Bohrium (atomic number 107)
1982 Meitnerium (atomic number 109)
1984 Hassium (atomic number 108)
J. R. H. Schneider 1981 Bohrium (atomic number 107)
W. F. W. Schneider 1981 Bohrium (atomic number 107)
Schött, H. J. 1984 Hassium (atomic number 108)
1994 Darmstadtium (atomic number 110)
1994 Roentgenium (atomic number 111)
1996 Copernicium (atomic number 112)
Schrödinger, Erwin 1925 Wave-particle duality
1926 Schrödinger equation
1930 Zitterbewegung
Schwabe, Heinrich 1843 Sunspot cycle
Schwann, Theodor 1839 Cell theory
Schwinger, Julian 1948 Quantum electrodynamics
Seaborg, Glenn T. 1940 Plutonium (atomic number 94)
1944 Curium (atomic number 96)
1944 Americium (atomic number 95)
1949 Berkelium (atomic number 97)
1950 Californium (atomic number 98)
1952 Mendelevium (atomic number 101)
1958 Nobelium (atomic number 102)
1974 Seaborgium (atomic number 106)
Seebeck, Thomas Johann 1821,1834 Thermoelectric effect
Sefström, Nils Gabriel 1830 Vanadium (atomic number 23)
Segrè, Emilio 1937 Technetium (atomic number 43)
1940 Astatine (atomic number 85)
Setterberg, Carl 1860,1882 Caesium (atomic number 55)
Shannon, Claude 1948 Information theory
Shapley, Harlow 1918 The universe
Sharp, Tom 2018 Shɑrpεn
Shchegolev, V. A. 1958 Nobelium (atomic number 102)
1961-1971 Lawrencium (atomic number 103)
Shockley, William 1947 Transistor
Sikkeland, Torbjørn 1958 Nobelium (atomic number 102)
1961-1971 Lawrencium (atomic number 103)
Skinner, B. F. 1938 Radical behaviorism
Skobelev, Nikolai Konstantinovich 1970 Dubnium (atomic number 105)
Smith, J. L. B. 1938 Coelacanth
Smith, William 1815 Fossil sequences
Snow, John 1854 Cholera and the pump
Soddy, Frederick 1896 Radioactivity
1913 Radioactive displacement law
1913-1918 Protactinium
1922 Isotope
Sommerfeld, Arnold 1851 Reynolds number
Soret, Jacques-Louis 1878-1879 Holmium (atomic number 67)
Spallanzani, Lazzaro 1765 Spontaneous generation
Stark, Johannes 1845-1913 Magneto-optic and electro-optic effects
Steno, Nicolas 1669 Stratigraphy
Sternberg, George Miller 1881 Streptococcus pneumoniae
Stevens, Nettie Maria 1910 Genes
Stokes, George Gabriel 1851 Reynolds number
Stookey, S. Donald 1953 CorningWare
Størmer, Carl 1908-1958 Van Allen belts
Strasburger, Eduard 1878 Mitosis
Strassmann, Fritz 1942 Nuclear energy
Street, Kenneth, Jr. 1950 Californium (atomic number 98)
Stromeyer, Friedrich 1817 Cadmium (atomic number 48)
Sturtevant, Alfred Henry 1910 Genes
Suess, Eduard 1885 Mountain formation
Sulzer, Friedrich Gabriel 1790,1808 Strontium (atomic number 38)
Sutton, Walter 1902 Boveri-Sutton chromosome theory
Swammerdam, Jan 1669 Epigenesis
Tacke, Ida 1908,1925 Rhenium (atomic number 75)
Tait, Peter Guthrie 1771,1885 Knot theory
Tamm, Igor 1932 Phonon
Tennant, Smithson 1750 Platinum (atomic number 78)
1804 Platinum group metals (atomic numbers 76 and 77)
Ter-Akopian, G. M. 1961-1971 Lawrencium (atomic number 103)
Tesla, Nikola 1913 Tesla turbine
Thénard, Louis Jacques 1808 Boron (atomic number 5)
1823 Silicon (atomic number 14)
Theophrastus 320 BCE Botany
Thompson, Benjamin 1847 Laws of thermodynamics
Thompson, Stanley Gerald 1949 Berkelium (atomic number 97)
1950 Californium (atomic number 98)
1952 Mendelevium (atomic number 101)
Thomson, Joseph John 1897 Electron
Thomson, James 1855,1865 Marangoni effect
Thomson, Thomas 1823 Silicon (atomic number 14)
B. Thuma 1981 Bohrium (atomic number 107)
Tinbergen, Nikolaas 1935 Instincts
Tipu Sultan 1780 Mysorean rockets
Tomonaga, Shin'ichirō 1948 Quantum electrodynamics
Torricelli, Evangelista 1643 Atmospheric pressure
Toussaint, Jean Joseph Henri 1880-1881 Anthrax vaccine
Towneley, Richard 1662 Boyle’s law
Townes, Charles Hard 1917-1960 Stimulated emission
Townsend, John Sealy 1897 Townsend discharge
1935 Geiger counter
Travers, Morris 1898 Krypton (atomic number 36)
1898 Neon (atomic number 10)
1898 Xenon (atomic number 54)
Troost, Louis Joseph 1801 Niobium (atomic number 41)
Turing, Alan 1946 Computer
Twort, Frederick 1915,1917 Bacteriophage
Tyndall, John 1863 Greenhouse effect
de Ulloa, Antonio 1750 Platinum (atomic number 78)
Urbain, Georges 1878,1907 Ytterbium (atomic number 70)
1907 Lutetium (atomic number 71)
Urey, Harold 1953 Abiogenesis
Urquhart, Thomas 1647-1678 Philosophical language: Logopandecteision
Valasek, Joseph 1920 Ferroelectricity
Van Allen, James 1908-1958 Van Allen belts
Vandermonde, Alexandre-Théophile 1771,1885 Knot theory
Vavilov, Nikolai Ivanovich 1923 Crop diversity
Le Verrier, Urbain Jean Joseph 1846 Discovery of Neptune
Vesalius, Andreas 1543 Human anatomy
da Vinci, Leonardo 1485 Parachute
1699 Tribology
de Villeneuve, Joachim Faiguet 1839-1887 International auxiliary language: Langue nouvelle
Virchow, Rudolf 1839 Cell theory
1858 Communities of cells
Volta, Alessandro 1799 Electric battery
Voigt, Woldemar 1845-1913 Magneto-optic and electro-optic effects
De Vries, Hugo 1909 Mutationism
van der Waals, Johannes Diederik 1873 Changes of state
Walcott, Charles Doolittle 1909 Burgess shale
Wald, George 1956 Visual phototransduction
von Waldeyer-Hartz, Wilhelm 1878 Mitosis
Wallace, Alfred Russel 1890 Aposematism
Wallis, John 1656 Infinite and infinitesimal
Watson, James 1953 DNA structure
Watt, James 1765 Steam engine
Wegener, Alfred Lothar 1912 Continental drift
Wenham, Francis Herbert 1871 Wind tunnel
Weiss, Pierre 1907 Magnetic domain
1911 Weiss magneton
von Weizsäcker, Carl Friedrich 1920 Stellar evolution
Weller, Thomas Huckle 1955 Polio vaccine
Whewell, William 1833 “Scientist”
Wilkins, John 1647-1678 Philosophical language: Real Character
1668 Metric system
Wilkins, John 1668 Metric system
Wollaston, William Hyde 1804 Platinum group metals
Wöhler, Friedrich 1828 Synthesis of urea
Wright, Orville 1903 Airplane
Wright, Sewall 1918 Neo-Darwinism
Wright, Wilbur 1903 Airplane
Yang, Chen-Ning 1956 Parity violation
Yi Xing 2400 BCE—1820 CE Computing devices
Young, Thomas 1800 Wave nature of light
Zamenhof, L. L. 1839-1887 International auxiliary language: Esperanto
Zeeman, Pieter 1845-1913 Magneto-optic and electro-optic effects
Zhabotinsky, Anatoly 1951 Chemical oscillations