Section of the periodic table

Elements
of science

8700 BCE - 2016

Tom Sharp


Periodic table of the elements

Group: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Period
1 1
H

Periodic Table of the Elements
Each element links to the page
in The book of science about the element.

2
He
2 3
Li
4
Be


5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3 11
Na
12
Mg


13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4 19
K
20
Ca

21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5 37
Rb
38
Sr

39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6 55
Cs
56
Ba
* 71
Lu
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7 87
Fr
88
Ra
** 103
Lr
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og

* Lanthanides 57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
** Actinides 89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No

Color key to chemical series

Alkali metal Alkaline earth Lanthanide Actinide Transition metal
Post-transition metal Metalloid Nonmetal Halogen Noble gas

Color key to atomic numbers and element symbols
These show the states of the element at a temperature of 0 °C and a pressure of 1 atmosphere.

Elements by year of discovery

Year Poems and
Commentary
Location—
Scientists
 
8700 BCE Middle East Copper Cu 29
6400 BCE Çatalhöyük Lead Pb 82
4600 BCE Varna Necropolis Gold Au 79
4000 BCE Asia Minor Silver Ag 47
4000 BCE China, India, Egypt, Sumeria Carbon C 006
3200 BCE Gerzeh Iron Fe 26
3100 BCE Egypt Antimony Sb 51
3000 BCE Mesopotamia, Balkans Tin Sn 50
2500 BCE Near East Arsenic As 33
2000 BCE China, India Sulfur S 016
2000-1500 BCE China, India, Egypt Mercury Hg 80
1000 BCE Judea, India, Nagarjuna Zinc Zn 30
1000 BCE Egypt, Greece, Rome, China, FranceParacelsus, Georgius Agricola, Claude François Geoffroy Bismuth Bi 83
1669 HamburgHennig Brand Phosphorus P 015
1735 StockholmGeorg Brandt Cobalt Co 27
1750 LondonAntonio de Ulloa, Charles Wood, William Brownrigg, William Hyde Wollaston, Smithson Tennant Platinum Pt 78
1751 LosAxel Fredrik Cronstedt Nickel Ni 28
1755,1808 Glasgow, LondonJoseph Black, Humphry Davy Magnesium Mg 012
1770-1774 Uppsala, FalunTorbern Bergman, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Johan Gottlieb Gahn Manganese Mn 25
1772 EdinburghDaniel Rutherford Nitrogen N 007
1774,1808 Uppsala, LondonCarl Wilhelm Scheele, Humphry Davy Barium Ba 56
1774 Joseph Priestley, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Antoine Lavoisier Oxygen O 008
1774,1810 Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Humphry Davy Chlorine Cl 017
1778,1781 UppsalaCarl Wilhelm Scheele, Peter Jacob Hjelm Molybdenum Mo 42
1781,1783 Uppsala, BergaraTorbern Bergman, Juan José Elhuyar, Fausto Elhuyar Tungsten W 74
1782 TransylvaniaFranz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein, Martin Heinrich Klaproth Tellurium Te 52
1784 Henry Cavendish Hydrogen H 001
1789,1824 Berlin, StockholmMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius Zirconium Zr 40
1789,1841 Berlin, ParisMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Eugène-Melchoir Péligot Uranium U 92
1790,1808 LondonAdair Crawford, William Cruikshank, Humphry Davy Strontium Sr 38
1791-1910 Creed, Berlin, Stockholm, TroyWilliam Gregor, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Matthew Hunter Titanium Ti 22
1794-1843 Åbo, StockholmJohan Gadolin, Carl Gustaf Mosander Yttrium Y 39
1797 ParisLouis Nicolas Vauquelin Chromium Cr 24
1798,1828 Paris, BerlinLouis Nicolas Vauquelin, Friedrich Wöhler, Antoine Bussy Beryllium Be 004
1801 LondonCharles Hatchett Niobium Nb 41
1802 UppsalaAnders Gustaf Ekeberg Tantalum Ta 73
1803,1830,1867 Mexico City, Stockholm, ManchesterAndrés Manuel del Río, Nils Gabriel Sefström, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Henry Enfield Roscoe Vanadium V 23
1803,1839 Berlin, Bastnäs, StockholmMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Wilhelm Hisinger, Carl Gustaf Mosander Cerium Ce 58
1804 LondonWilliam Hyde Wollaston, Smithson Tennant Rhodium Palladium Iridium Osmium
1807 LondonHumphry Davy Potassium K 019
1807 LondonHumphry Davy Sodium Na 011
1808 LondonHumphry Davy Calcium Ca 020
1808 London, ParisHumphry Davy, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Louis Jacques Thénard Boron B 005
1811 DijonBernard Courtois Iodine I 53
1817,1821 Stockholm, LondonJohan August Arfwedson, William Thomas Brande Lithium Li 003
1817 GöttingenKarl Samuel Leberecht Hermann, Friedrich Stromeyer, Johann Christoff Heinrich Roloff Cadmium Cd 48
1817 StockholmJöns Jacob Berzelius, Johan Gottlieb Gahn Selenium Se 34
1823 StockholmJöns Jacob Berzelius Silicon Si 014
1825,1827 Copenhagen, BerlinHans Christian Ørsted, Friedrich Wöhler Aluminium Al 013
1825,1826 HeidelbergCarl Jacob Löwig, Leopold Gmelin, Antoine Jérôme Balard Bromine Br 35
1829 StockholmMorten Thrane Esmark, Jöns Jacob Berzelius Thorium Th 90
1839 StockholmCarl Gustaf Mosander Lanthanum La 57
1843 StockholmCarl Gustaf Mosander Terbium Tb 65
1843 StockholmCarl Gustaf Mosander Erbium Er 68
1844 KazanKarl Ernst Claus Ruthenium Ru 44
1860,1882 HeidelbergRobert Bunsen, Gustav Kirchhoff, Carl Setterberg Caesium Cs 55
1861 HeidelbergRobert Bunsen, Gustav Kirchhoff Rubidium Rb 37
1861-1862 London, LilleWilliam Crookes, Claude-Auguste Lamy Thallium Tl 81
1863 FreibergFerdinand Reich, Hieronymous Theodor Richter Indium In 49
1868-1895 Guntur, West HampsteadPierre Janssen, Norman Lockyer, Luigi Palmieri, William Ramsay, Per Teodor Cleve, Nils Abraham Langlet Helium He 002
1869 Dmitri Mendeleev Periodic table
1875 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran Gallium Ga 31
1878,1907 Geneva, ParisJean Charles Galissard de Marignac, Georges Urbain Ytterbium Yb 70
1878-1879 Geneva, UppsalaMarc Delafontaine, Jacques-Louis Soret, Per Teodor Cleve Holmium Ho 67
1879 UppsalaPer Teodor Cleve Thulium Tm 69
1879 UppsalaLars Fredrik Nilson Scandium Sc 21
1879 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran Samarium Sm 62
1880 GenevaJean Charles Galissard de Marignac Gadolinium Gd 64
1885 ViennaCarl Auer von Welsbach Praseodymium Pr 59
1885 ViennaCarl Auer von Welsbach Neodymium Nd 60
1886 ParisHenri Moissan Fluorine F 009
1886 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran Dysprosium Dy 66
1886 FreibergClemens Winkler Germanium Ge 32
1890-1901 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Eugène-Anatole Demarçay Europium Eu 63
1894 LondonJohn William Strutt Lord Rayleigh, William Ramsay Argon Ar 018
1898 LondonWilliam Ramsay, Morris Travers Krypton Kr 36
1898 LondonWilliam Ramsay, Morris Travers Neon Ne 010
1898 LondonWilliam Ramsay, Morris Travers Xenon Xe 54
1898 ParisMarie Curie, Pierre Curie Polonium Po 84
1898 ParisMarie Curie, Pierre Curie Radium Ra 88
1899-1910 Paris, Montreal, Halle, LondonMarie Curie, Pierre Curie, Robert Bowie Owens, Ernest Rutherford, Friedrich Ernst Dorn, André-Louis Debierne, William Ramsay, Robert Whytlaw-Gray Radon Rn 86
1899,1902 Paris, BrunswickAndré-Louis Debierne, Friedrich Oskar Giesel Actinium Ac 89
1907 Paris, Vienna, DurhamGeorges Urbain, Carl Auer von Welsbach, Charles James Lutetium Lu 71
1908,1925 London, BerlinMasataka Ogawa, Walter Noddack, Ida Tacke, Otto Berg Rhenium Re 75
1913-1918 Karlsruhe, Glasgow, BerlinOswald Helmuth Göhring, Georg von Hevesy, John Arnold Cranston, Frederick Soddy, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner Protactinium Pa 91
1923 CopenhagenDirk Coster, Georg von Hevesy Hafnium Hf 72
1937 PalermoEmilio Segrè, Carlo Perrier Technetium Tc 43
1939 ParisMarguerite Perey Francium Fr 87
1940 BerkeleyDale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, Emilio Segrè Astatine At 85
1940 BerkeleyEdwin McMillan, Philip Abelson Neptunium Np 93
1940 BerkeleyGlenn T. Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, Joseph W. Kennedy, Edwin McMillan Plutonium Pu 94
1944 Berkeley, ChicagoGlenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, Albert Ghiorso Curium Cm 96
1944 Berkeley, ChicagoGlenn T. Seaborg, Leon O. Morgan, Ralph A. James, Albert Ghiorso Americium Am 95
1945 Oak RidgeCharles D. Coryell, Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin Promethium Pm 61
1949 BerkeleyGlenn T. Seaborg, Albert Ghiorso, Stanley Gerald Thompson Berkelium Bk 97
1950 BerkeleyStanley Gerald Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso, Glenn T. Seaborg Californium Cf 98
1952 Berkeley, Argonne, Los AlamosAlbert Ghiorso and co-workers at Berkeley, Argonne, and Los Alamos Einsteinium Es 99
1952 Berkeley, Argonne, Los AlamosAlbert Ghiorso and co-workers at Berkeley, Argonne, and Los Alamos Fermium Fm 100
1955 BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Bernard G. Harvey, Gregory R. Choppin, Stanley Gerald Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg Mendelevium Md 101
1958 Dubna, BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, John R. Walton, Glenn T. Seaborg, E. D. Donets, V. A. Shchegolev, V. A. Ermakov Nobelium No 102
1961-1971 Berkeley, DubnaAlbert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon Larsh, Robert M. Latimer, Georgy Flerov, I. Zvara, G. M. Ter-Akopian, V. A. Shchegolev, V. L. Mikheev Lawrencium Lr 103
1969 BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Matti Nurmia, James Andrew Harris, Kari Eskola, Pirkko Eskola Rutherfordium Rf 104
1970 Dubna, BerkeleyGeorgy Flyorov, V. A. Druin, A. G. Demin, Yu. V. Lobanov, Nikolai Konstantinovich Skobelev, G. N. Akap’ev, B. V. Fefilov, I. V. Kolesov, K. A. Gavrilov, Yu. P. Kharitonov, L. P. Chelnokov, Albert Ghiorso, Matti Nurmia, James Andrew Harris, Kari Eskola, Pirkko Eskola Dubnium Db 105
1974 BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Joachim Michael Nitschke, José R. Alonso, Carol T. Alonso, Matti Nurmia, Glenn T. Seaborg, E. Kenneth Hulet, Ronald W. Lougheed Seaborgium Sg 106
1981 DarmstadtGottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, Sigurd Hofmann, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Willibrord Reisdorf, Karl-Heinz Schmidt, J. R. H. Schneider, W. F. W. Schneider, Christoph-Clemens Sahm, B. Thuma Bohrium Bh 107
1982 DarmstadtGottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, Sigurd Hofmann, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Klaus Poppensieker, Willibrord Reisdorf, Karl-Heinz Schmidt, K. Schneider, Christoph-Clemens Sahm, Detlef Vermeulen Meitnerium Mt 109
1984 DarmstadtGottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Sigurd Hofmann, Fritz Peter Heßberger, J. Keller, Klaus Poppensieker, Willibrord Reisdorf, Karl-Heinz Schmidt, H.-J. Schött, Matti Leino, R. Hingmann Hassium Hs 108
1994 DarmstadtSigurd Hofmann, Gottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Fritz Peter Heßberger, H. J. Schött, Victor Ninov Darmstadtium Ds 110
1994 DarmstadtSigurd Hofmann, Victor Ninov, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Gottfried Münzenberg, H. J. Schött Roentgenium Rg 111
1996 DarmstadtSigurd Hofmann, Victor Ninov, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Gottfried Münzenberg, H. J. Schött Copernicium Cn 112
1999-2007 DubnaYuri Oganessian, Alexander Vladimirovich Yeremin, Andre Georgievich Popeko, Sergey L. Bogomolov, German Vladimirovich Buklanov, M. L. Chelnokov, Victor Ivanovich Chepigin, Boris N. Gikal, Vladimir A. Gorshkov, Georgy G. Gulbekian, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Anatoly Petrovich Kabachenko, Anton Yurievich Lavrentiev, Oleg Nikolaevich Malyshev, Jozef Rohach, Roman Nikolaevich Sagaidak, Sigurd Hofmann, S. Saro, G. Giardina, Kosuke Morita Flerovium Fl 114
2000 DubnaYuri Oganessian, V. K. Utyonkov, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, G. G. Gulbekian, Sergey L. Bogomolov, B. N. Gikal, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, O. V. Ivanov, G. V. Buklanov, K. Subotic, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Ken J. Moody, John F. Wild, Nancy J. Stoyer, Mark A. Stoyer, Ronald W. Lougheed, C. A. Laue, Ye. A. Karelin, A. N. Tatarinov Livermorium Lv 116
2004 DubnaYuri Oganessian, V. K. Utyonkoy, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, G. G. Gulbekian, Sergey L. Bogomolov, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, A. A. Voinov, G. V. Buklanov, K. Subotic, V. I. Zagrebaev, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Joshua B. Patin, Ken J. Moody, John F. Wild, Mark A. Stoyer, Nancy J. Stoyer, Dawn A. Shaughnessy, Jacqueline M. Kenneally, Ronald W. Lougheed Moscovium Mc 115
2006 DubnaYuri Oganessian, V. K. Utyonkov, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, O. V. Ivanov, A. A. Voinov, K. Subotic, V. I. Zagrebaev, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Ken J. Moody, John F. Wild, Mark A. Stoyer, Nancy J. Stoyer, C. A. Laue, Dawn A. Shaughnessy, Joshua B. Patin, Ronald W. Lougheed Oganesson Og 118
2009 DubnaYuri Oganessian, F. Sh. Abdullin, P. D. Bailey, D. E. Benker, M. E. Bennett, S. N. Dmitriev, J. G. Ezold, Joseph H. Hamilton, R. A. Henderson, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Yu. V. Lobanov, A. N. Mezentsev, Ken J. Moody, S. L. Nelson, A. N. Polyakov, C. E. Porter, A. V. Ramayya, F. D. Riley, James B. Roberto, M. A. Ryabinin, K. P. Rykaczewski, R. N. Sagaidak, Dawn A. Shaughnessy, I. V. Shirokovsky, Mark A. Stoyer, V. G. Subbotin, R. Sudowe, A. M. Sukhov, Yu. S. Tsyganov, V. K. Utyonkov, A. A. Voinov, G. K. Vostokin, P. A. Wilk Tennessine Ts 117
2012 WakoKosuke Morita, Kouji Morimoto, Daiya Kaji, Takahiro Akiyama, Shin-ichi Goto, Hiromitsu Haba, Eiji Ideguchi, Kenji Katori, Hiriyuki Koura, Hidetoshi Kikunaga, Hisaaki Kudo, Testuya Ohnishi, Akira Ozawa, Nozomi Sato, Toshimi Suda, Keisuke Sueki, Fuyuki Tokanai, Takayuki Yamaguchi, Akira Yoneda, Atsushi Yoshida Nihonium Nh 113

Elements by atomic number

The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom.

Atomic
number
Element Date Location
1 Hydrogen 1784 LondonHenry Cavendish
2 Helium 1868-1895 Guntur, West HampsteadPierre Janssen, Norman Lockyer, Luigi Palmieri, William Ramsay, Per Teodor Cleve, Nils Abraham Langlet
3 Lithium 1817,1821 Stockholm, LondonJohan August Arfwedson, William Thomas Brande
4 Beryllium 1798,1828 Paris, BerlinLouis Nicolas Vauquelin, Friedrich Wöhler, Antoine Bussy
5 Boron 1808 London, ParisHumphry Davy, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Louis Jacques Thénard
6 Carbon 4000 BCE China, India, Egypt, Sumeria
7 Nitrogen 1772 EdinburghDaniel Rutherford
8 Oxygen 1774 Uppsala, London, ParisCarl Wilhelm Scheele, Joseph Priestley, Antoine Lavoisier
9 Fluorine 1886 ParisHenri Moissan
10 Neon 1898 LondonWilliam Ramsay, Morris Travers
11 Sodium 1807 LondonHumphry Davy
12 Magnesium 1755 Glasgow, LondonJoseph Black, Humphry Davy
13 Aluminium 1825,1827 Copenhagen, BerlinHans Christian Ørsted, Friedrich Wöhler
14 Silicon 1823 StockholmJöns Jacob Berzelius
15 Phosphorus 1669 HamburgHennig Brand
16 Sulfur 2000 BCE China, India
17 Chlorine 1810 Uppsala, LondonCarl Wilhelm Scheele, Humphry Davy
18 Argon 1894 LondonJohn William Strutt Lord Rayleigh, William Ramsay
19 Potassium 1807 LondonHumphry Davy
20 Calcium 1808 LondonHumphry Davy
21 Scandium 1879 UppsalaLars Fredrik Nilson
22 Titanium 1791-1910 Creed, Berlin, Stockholm, TroyWilliam Gregor, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Matthew Hunter
23 Vanadium 1803,1830,1867 Mexico City, Stockholm, ManchesterAndrés Manuel del Río, Nils Gabriel Sefström, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Henry Enfield Roscoe
24 Chromium 1797 ParisLouis Nicolas Vauquelin
25 Manganese 1770-1774 Uppsala, FalunTorbern Bergman, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Johan Gottlieb Gahn
26 Iron 3200 BCE Gerzeh
27 Cobalt 1735 StockholmGeorg Brandt
28 Nickel 1751 LosAxel Fredrik Cronstedt
29 Copper 8700 BCE Middle East
30 Zinc 1000 BCE Judea, India, Nagarjuna
31 Gallium 1875 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
32 Germanium 1886 FreibergClemens Winkler
33 Arsenic 2500 BCE Near East
34 Selenium 1817 StockholmJöns Jacob Berzelius, Johan Gottlieb Gahn
35 Bromine 1825,1826 HeidelbergCarl Jacob Löwig, Leopold Gmelin, Antoine Jérôme Balard
36 Krypton 1898 LondonWilliam Ramsay, Morris Travers
37 Rubidium 1861 HeidelbergRobert Bunsen, Gustav Kirchhoff
38 Strontium 1790,1808 LondonAdair Crawford, William Cruikshank, Humphry Davy
39 Yttrium 1794-1843 Åbo, StockholmJohan Gadolin, Carl Gustaf Mosander
40 Zirconium 1789,1824 Berlin, StockholmMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius
41 Niobium 1801 LondonCharles Hatchett
42 Molybdenum 1778,1781 UppsalaCarl Wilhelm Scheele, Peter Jacob Hjelm
43 Technetium 1937 PalermoEmilio Segrè, Carlo Perrier
44 Ruthenium 1844 KazanKarl Ernst Claus
45 Rhodium 1804 LondonWilliam Hyde Wollaston
46 Palladium 1804 LondonWilliam Hyde Wollaston
47 Silver 4000 BCE Asia Minor
48 Cadmium 1817 GöttingenKarl Samuel Leberecht Hermann, Friedrich Stromeyer, Johann Christoff Heinrich Roloff
49 Indium 1863 FreibergFerdinand Reich, Hieronymous Theodor Richter
50 Tin 3000 BCE Mesopotamia, Balkans
51 Antimony 3100 BCE Egypt
52 Tellurium 1782 TransylvaniaFranz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein, Martin Heinrich Klaproth
53 Iodine 1811 DijonBernard Courtois
54 Xenon 1898 LondonWilliam Ramsay, Morris Travers
55 Caesium 1860,1882 HeidelbergRobert Bunsen, Gustav Kirchhoff, Carl Setterberg
56 Barium 1774,1808 Uppsala, LondonCarl Wilhelm Scheele, Humphry Davy
57 Lanthanum 1839 StockholmCarl Gustaf Mosander
58 Cerium 1803,1839 Berlin, Bastnäs, StockholmMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Wilhelm Hisinger, Carl Gustaf Mosander
59 Praseodymium 1885 ViennaCarl Auer von Welsbach
60 Neodymium 1885 ViennaCarl Auer von Welsbach
61 Promethium 1945 Oak RidgeCharles D. Coryell, Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin
62 Samarium 1879 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
63 Europium 1890-1901 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Eugène-Anatole Demarçay
64 Gadolinium 1880 GenevaJean Charles Galissard de Marignac
65 Terbium 1843 StockholmCarl Gustaf Mosander
66 Dysprosium 1886 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
67 Holmium 1878-1879 Geneva, UppsalaMarc Delafontaine, Per Teodor Cleve
68 Erbium 1843 StockholmCarl Gustaf Mosander
69 Thulium 1879 UppsalaPer Teodor Cleve
70 Ytterbium 1878,1907 Geneva, ParisJean Charles Galissard de Marignac, Georges Urbain
71 Lutetium 1907 Paris, Vienna, DurhamGeorges Urbain, Carl Auer von Welsbach, Charles James
72 Hafnium 1923 CopenhagenDirk Coster, Georg von Hevesy
73 Tantalum 1802 UppsalaAnders Gustaf Ekeberg
74 Tungsten 1781,1783 Uppsala, BergaraTorbern Bergman, Juan José Elhuyar, Fausto Elhuyar
75 Rhenium 1908,1925 London, BerlinMasataka Ogawa, Walter Noddack, Ida Tacke, Otto Berg
76 Osmium 1804 LondonSmithson Tennant
77 Iridium 1804 LondonSmithson Tennant
78 Platinum 1750 LondonAntonio de Ulloa, Charles Wood, William Brownrigg, William Hyde Wollaston, Smithson Tennant
79 Gold 4600 BCE Varna Necropolis
80 Mercury 2000-1500 BCE China, India, Egypt
81 Thallium 1861-1862 London, LilleWilliam Crookes, Claude-Auguste Lamy
82 Lead 6400 BCE Çatalhöyük
83 Bismuth 1000 BCE Egypt, Greece, Rome, China, FranceParacelsus, Georgius Agricola, Claude François Geoffroy
84 Polonium 1898 ParisMarie Curie, Pierre Curie
85 Astatine 1940 BerkeleyDale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, Emilio Segrè
86 Radon 1899-1910 Paris, Montreal, Halle, LondonMarie Curie, Pierre Curie, Robert Bowie Owens, Ernest Rutherford, Friedrich Ernst Dorn, André-Louis Debierne, William Ramsay, Robert Whytlaw-Gray
87 Francium 1939 ParisMarguerite Perey
88 Radium 1898 ParisMarie Curie, Pierre Curie
89 Actinium 1899,1902 Paris, BrunswickAndré-Louis Debierne, Friedrich Oskar Giesel
90 Thorium 1829 StockholmMorten Thrane Esmark, Jöns Jacob Berzelius
91 Protactinium 1913-1918 Karlsruhe, Glasgow, BerlinOswald Helmuth Göhring, Georg von Hevesy, John Arnold Cranston, Frederick Soddy, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner
92 Uranium 1789,1841 Berlin, ParisMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Eugène-Melchoir Péligot
93 Neptunium 1940 BerkeleyEdwin McMillan, Philip Abelson
94 Plutonium 1940 BerkeleyGlenn T. Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, Joseph W. Kennedy, Edwin McMillan
95 Americium 1944 Berkeley, ChicagoGlenn T. Seaborg, Leon O. Morgan, Ralph A. James, Albert Ghiorso
96 Curium 1944 Berkeley, ChicagoRalph A. James
97 Berkelium 1949 BerkeleyGlenn T. Seaborg, Albert Ghiorso, Stanley Gerald Thompson
98 Californium 1950 BerkeleyStanley Gerald Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso, Glenn T. Seaborg
99 Einsteinium 1952 Berkeley, Argonne, Los AlamosAlbert Ghiorso and co-workers
100 Fermium 1952 Berkeley, Argonne, Los AlamosAlbert Ghiorso and co-workers
101 Mendelevium 1955 BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Bernard G. Harvey, Gregory R. Choppin, Stanley Gerald Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg
102 Nobelium 1958 Berkeley, DubnaAlbert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, John R. Walton, Glenn T. Seaborg, E. D. Donets, V. A. Shchegolev, V. A. Ermakov
103 Lawrencium 1961-1971 Berkeley, DubnaAlbert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon Larsh, Robert M. Latimer, Georgy Flyorov, I. Zvara, G. M. Ter-Akopian, V. A. Shchegolev, V. L. Mikheev
104 Rutherfordium 1969 BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Matti Nurmia, James Andrew Harris, Kari Eskola, Pirkko Eskola
105 Dubnium 1970 Dubna, BerkeleyGeorgy Flyorov, V. A. Druin, A. G. Demin, Yu. V. Lobanov, Nikolai Konstantinovich Skobelev, G. N. Akap’ev, B. V. Fefilov, I. V. Kolesov, K. A. Gavrilov, Yu. P. Kharitonov, L. P. Chelnokov, Albert Ghiorso, Matti Nurmia, James Andrew Harris, Kari Eskola, Pirkko Eskola
106 Seaborgium 1974 BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Joachim Michael Nitschke, José R. Alonso, Carol T. Alonso, Matti Nurmia, Glenn T. Seaborg, E. Kenneth Hulet, Ronald W. Lougheed>
107 Bohrium 1981 DarmstadtGottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, Sigurd Hofmann, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Willibrord Reisdorf, Karl-Heinz Schmidt, J. R. H. Schneider, W. F. W. Schneider, Christoph-Clemens Sahm, B. Thuma
108 Hassium 1984 DarmstadtGottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Sigurd Hofmann, Fritz Peter Heßberger, J. Keller, Klaus Poppensieker, Willibrord Reisdorf, Karl-Heinz Schmidt, H.-J. Schött, Matti Leino, R. Hingmann
109 Meitnerium 1982 DarmstadtGottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, Sigurd Hofmann, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Klaus Poppensieker, Willibrord Reisdorf, Karl-Heinz Schmidt, K. Schneider, Christoph-Clemens Sahm, Detlef Vermeulen
110 Darmstadtium 1994 DarmstadtSigurd Hofmann, Gottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Fritz Peter Heßberger, H. J. Schött, Victor Ninov
111 Roentgenium 1994 DarmstadtSigurd Hofmann, Victor Ninov, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Gottfried Münzenberg, H. J. Schött
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