We make a distinction between 0, the number of nothing, and
0, a digit that is used in numbers written with digits in our
positional number system.
History shows that the digit 0 came first (using various
symbols). The history of the number 0 came from Brahmagupta. The
Islamic world already had the positional number system.
Brahmagupta gave them the number 0. The Persian, Muḥammad
ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (the inventor of
algebra), oversaw translation of Brahmagupta into Arabic.
Al-Khwārizmī’s work in Latin translation in the
twelfth century introduced the Hindu-Arabic numeral system to the
Western world. Fibonacci, having learned from Arabic
mathemeticians, contributed to its adoption in the thirteenth
See also in The book of science:
Readings on wikipedia: