Nicole Oresme and Pierre de Fermat independently invented
two-dimensional and three-dimensional coordinate systems, but the
publication by Descartes in 1637 had a huge influence, including
facilitating the development of calculus by Newton and Leibniz.
Descartes used only a single axis; commentators including Frans
van Schooten added the second perpendicular axis.
See also in The book of science:
Readings on wikipedia: