A.K.A. data visualization, descriptive statistics, or
statistical graphics, forms include line charts, bar charts,
circle graphs, histograms, scatter plots and biplots, box plots,
pareto charts, pie charts and doughnut charts, ring or sunburst
charts, control charts, run charts, step-and-leaf displays,
cartograms, trellis charts (also called small multiples, lattice
charts, grid charts, and panel charts), probability plots,
spaghetti plots, residual plots, and block plots. Polar area
diagrams are also called rose diagrams; almost no one calls them
coxcombs any more.
Another noted statistical artist was John Snow, whose map of
cholera clusters in London in 1854 helped save lives.
See also in The book of science:
Readings on wikipedia: