In 1889, Francis Galton published Natural Inheritance. He
introduced the use of surveys and questionnaires; he was a pioneer
in eugenics, which was later used by Hitler to justify the
holocaust. He invented a method of classifying fingerprints that
replaced the use of biometrics for identifying criminals; he
created the first weather map; he invented the dog whistle to help
with his study of hearing in animals.
Many studies have tried to identify the factors for success.
In relation to computer intelligence, some have claimed that if a
computer has it then it is not intelligence. If a person, asked a
question, refuses to answer, the questioner may draw his own
See also in The book of science:
Readings on wikipedia: