Van Allen belts

1908-1958

Van Allen belts

The book of science

Tom Sharp

Kristian Birkeland, Carl Størmer, James Van Allen electromagnetism

Van Allen belts

Shields

Auroras

Lights in the sky

Galileo named the northern lights Aurora Borealis in 1619. The same phenomenon near the south pole is called Aurora Australis. Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune also get auroras.

Without a molten core, Earth would have no magnetic field, no aurora, and no atmosphere, like Mars.

See also in The book of science:

Readings on wikipedia: