Fermionic condensate

2003

Fermionic condensate

The book of science

Tom Sharp

Deborah Jin, Rudolf Grimm, Wolfgang Ketterle physics

Fermionic condensate

Holes in the theory

States of matter

According to theory, fermions have half-integer spins (an odd number of halves), unlike bosons, which have integer spins. Leptons such as electrons are fermions; quarks are fermions. The rules for adding odd numbers are analogous; two odds make an even; an odd number of odds make an odd. Composites of odd numbers of leptons and quarks are fermions. Protons and neutrons are composed of three quarks, so they are fermions. A helium-3 atom, with two protons, one neutron, and two electrons, is a fermion.

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