benzine ring (c6h6)

Contents

The book of science

Tom Sharp


Chronological index of poems and commentaries

Year Poems and
Commentary
Scientists  
8700 BCE Middle East elements Copper Cu 29
6400 BCE Çatalhöyük elements Lead Pb 82
4600 BCE Varna Necropolis elements Gold Au 79
4000 BCE Asia Minor elements Silver Ag 47
4000 BCE China, India, Egypt, Sumeria elements Carbon C 006
3200 BCE Gerzeh elements Iron Fe 26
3100 BCE Egypt elements Antimony Sb 51
3000 BCE Mesopotamia, Balkans elements Tin Sn 50
2500 BCE Near East elements Arsenic As 33
2400 BCE—1820 CE Jabir ibn Aflah, Al-Biruni, Ismail al-Jazari, Jamshīd al-Kāshī, Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī, Apollonius of Perga, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Liang Lingzan, Samuel Morland, John Napier, Willgodt Theophil Odhner, William Oughtred, Blaise Pascal, Giovanni Poleni, Yi Xing mechanics Computing devices
2000 BCE China, India elements Sulfur S 016
2000-1500 BCE China, India, Egypt elements Mercury Hg 80
1000 BCE Judea, India, Nagarjuna elements Zinc Zn 30
1000 BCE Egypt, Greece, Rome, China, France elements Bismuth Bi 83
546 BCE Thales of Miletus geometry Thales’ theorem
546 BCE Thales of Miletus electromagnetism Triboelectric effect
495 BCE Pythagoras geometry Proof of the Pythagorean theorem
5th century BCE Mozi, Lu Ban aerodynamics Kite
400 BCE Hippocrates medicine Medicine
335 BCE Aristotle philosophy of science Science
320 BCE Theophrastus botany Botany
300 BCE Euclid geometry Geometry
260 BCE Archimedes mechanics Mechanical advantage
240 BCE Eratosthenes geodesy cartography Geodesy
206 BCE Chinese, Han dynasty electromagnetism Compass
134 BCE Hipparchus astronomy Astronomy
70 Hero of Alexandria (Heron) mechanics Windmill
70 Pedanius Dioscorides medicine Traditional medicine
105 Cai Lun manufacturing Paper
140 Claudius Ptolemy astronomy Geocentrism
180 Galen medicine Medical research
200 Chinese, Han dynasty manufacturing Woodblock printing, detail from Manual of the Mustard Seed Garden
628 Brahmagupta mathematics Formulas with zero
820 Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī mathematics Algebra
9th century Chinese, Tang Dynasty chemistry Gunpowder
10th century Chinese, Tang dynasty manufacturing Rocket
1025 Alhazen (Abū-‘Alī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥaytham) optics Optics
1025 Avicenna (Ibn-Sīnā) medicine Medicine bottle - The Canon of Medicine
1040 Bi Sheng manufacturing Movable type reading Bi Sheng
1202 Leonardo Pisano Bigollo (Fibonacci) mathematics Fibonacci sequence - Number system
1413-1420 Filippo Brunelleschi, Leon Battista Alberti, Piero della Francesca optics Perspective
1485 Leonardo da Vinci aerodynamics Toxicology
1538 Paracelsus toxicology Toxicology
1543 Nicolaus Copernicus astronomy Heliocentrism
1543 Andreas Vesalius anatomy Human anatomy
1565 Conrad Gessner paleontology Fossils
1569 Gerardus Mercator cartography Mercator projection
1572 Tycho Brahe astronomy Nova Stella - Supernova
1590-1608 Zacharias Janssen, Hans Lippershey, Jacob Metius, Cornelis Drebbel optics Virtual image - Microscope and telescope
1600 William Gilbert electromagnetism Magnetism
1609 Johannes Kepler astronomy Planetary orbits
1610 Galileo Galilei astronomy Observational astronomy
1614 John Napier mathematics Logarithm
1614 Santorio Santorio metabolism Metabolism
1620 Francis Bacon philosophy of science Scientific method
1620 Cornelis Drebbel mechanics Submarine
1628 William Harvey anatomy Circulation of the blood
1637 René Descartes geometry Cartesian coordinates
1637 Pythagoras, Vincenzo Galilei, Marin Mersenne acoustics Mersenne’s laws
1638 Galileo Galilei kinematics Kinematics
1638 William Gascoigne metrology Micrometer
1639 Jeremiah Horrocks astronomy Transit of Venus
1643 Evangelista Torricelli, Blaise Pascal atmospheric sciences Atmospheric pressure
1644-1869 William Playfair, Florence Nightingale, Charles Joseph Minard demography Infographics
1647-1678 Francis Lodwick, Thomas Urquhart, George Dalgarno, Thomas Wilkins, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz linguistics Philosophical language
1654 Blaise Pascal, Pierre de Fermat probability Probability theory
1656 Christiaan Huygens, James Clerk Maxwell astronomy Rings of Saturn
1656 John Wallis mathematics Infinite and infinitesimal
1657 Christiaan Huygens horology Pendulum clock
1661 Robert Boyle chemistry Chymistry
1662 Richard Towneley, Henry Power, Robert Boyle chemistry Boyle’s law
1662 Pierre de Fermat optics Fermat’s principle
1665-1831 Robert Hooke, Antonie van Leeuwenhock, Robert Brown cell biology Cell
1666 Isaac Newton optics Theory of color
1668 Francesco Redi parasitology Parasites
1668,1799 John Wilkins (and the French Revolution) metrology Units - Metric system
1668,1669 James Gregory, Isaac Barrow mathematics Fundamental theorem of calculus
1669 Nicolas Steno stratigraphy Fossil shark tooth - Stratigraphy
1669 Jan Swammerdam entomology Epigenesis
1669 Rasmus Bartholin optics Birefringence
1669 HamburgHennig Brand elements Phosphorus P 015
1670,1886 Nehemiah Grew, Robert Kidston palynology spores and pollen - Palynology
1671 Giovanni Domenico Cassini astronomy Planetary distances
1671 Jean Picard geodesy Surveying the earth
1671 Jean Richer geodesy Gravimetry
1671,1684 Isaac Newton, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz mathematics Calculus
1672,1742,1852 Isaac Newton, Benjamin Robins, Heinrich Gustav Magnus aerodynamics Magnus effect
1673 Robert Hooke, Antonie van Leeuwenhock biology Flea by Hooke - Microorganisms
1676 Ole Rømer electromagnetism Speed of light
1678 Robert Hooke horology Hooke’s law
1678,1816 Christiaan Huygens, Augustin-Jean Fresnel optics Huygens–Fresnel principle
1679 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz mathematics Yin & yang - Binary number
1682 Robert Hooke psychology Memory
1684 Nehemiah Grew biometrics Fingerprint
1687 Isaac Newton mathematics Principia Mathematica
1694 Rudolf Jakob Camerarius botany Plant sexuality
1699 Leonardo da Vinci, Guillaume Amontons physics Tribology
1701 Isaac Newton thermometry Newton scale
1701 Ole Rømer thermometry Rømer scale
1705 Edmond Halley astronomy Halley’s comet
1724 Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit thermometry Fahrenheit scale
1729 James Bradley electromagnetism Aberration of light
1730 René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur thermometry Réaumur scale
1732 Joseph-Nicolas Delisle thermometry Delisle scale
1735 StockholmGeorg Brandt elements Cobalt Co 27
1735 George Hadley atmospheric_sciences Trade winds
1735 Carl Linnaeus philosophy of science Naming species
1736 Leonhard Euler mathematics Graph theory
1736-1895 Leonhard Euler, Antoine-Jean Lhuilier, August Ferdinand Möbius, Johann Benedict Listing, Henri Poincaré mathematics Topology
1738 Daniel Bernoulli physics Bernoulli’s principle
1742 Anders Celsius, Jean-Pierre Christin thermometry Centigrade scale
1743 Gerhard Friedrich Müller ethnography Ethnography
1745-1746 Ewald Georg von Kleist, Pieter van Musschenbroek electromagnetism Leyden jar
1747 Benjamin Franklin electromagnetism Electric charge
1750 LondonAntonio de Ulloa, Charles Wood, William Brownrigg, William Hyde Wollaston, Smithson Tennant elements Platinum Pt 78
1751 LosAxel Fredrik Cronstedt elements Nickel Ni 28
1752 Jean le Rond d’Alembert fluid dynamics D’Alembert’s paradox
1755,1808 Glasgow, LondonJoseph Black, Humphry Davy elements Magnesium Mg 012
1756 Franz Ulrich Theodor Aepinus electromagnetism Pyroelectricity
1757 Johan Carl Wilcke tribology Triboelectric series
1758 Leonhard Euler mathematics Euler characteristic
1761 Joseph Black thermodynamics Latent heat
1763 Thomas Bayes probability Bayes’ theorem
1765 Lazzaro Spallanzani biology Spontaneous generation
1765 James Watt thermodynamics Steam engine
1768 Johann Heinrich Lambert, Ferdinand von Lindemann mathematics Pi = C/d
1770-1774 Uppsala, FalunTorbern Bergman, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Johan Gottlieb Gahn elements Manganese Mn 25
1771,1885 Alexandre-Théophile Vandermonde, Peter Guthrie Tait mathematics Knot theory
1772 EdinburghDaniel Rutherford elements Nitrogen N 007
1774,1808 Uppsala, LondonCarl Wilhelm Scheele, Humphry Davy elements Barium Ba 56
1774 Joseph Priestley, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Antoine Lavoisier elements Oxygen O 008
1774 Antoine Lavoisier stoichiometry Conservation of mass
1774,1810 Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Humphry Davy elements Chlorine Cl 017
1778,1845 Sebald Justinus Brugmans, Michael Faraday electromagnetism Diamagnetism
1778,1781 UppsalaCarl Wilhelm Scheele, Peter Jacob Hjelm elements Molybdenum Mo 42
1780 Hyder Ali, Tipu Sultan manufacturing Mysorean rockets
1781 William Herschel astronomy Discovery of Uranus
1781,1783 Uppsala, BergaraTorbern Bergman, Juan José Elhuyar, Fausto Elhuyar elements Tungsten W 74
1782 TransylvaniaFranz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein, Martin Heinrich Klaproth elements Tellurium Te 52
1784 Henry Cavendish elements Hydrogen H 001
1785 James Hutton geology Earth cycles
1785 Charles-Augustin de Coulomb electromagnetism Coulomb’s law
1789,1824 Berlin, StockholmMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius elements Zirconium Zr 40
1789,1841 Berlin, ParisMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Eugène-Melchoir Péligot elements Uranium U 92
1790,1808 LondonAdair Crawford, William Cruikshank, Humphry Davy elements Strontium Sr 38
1791-1910 Creed, Berlin, Stockholm, TroyWilliam Gregor, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Matthew Hunter elements Titanium Ti 22
1791,1820 Luigi Galvani, Hans Christian Ørsted, Johann Schweigger electromagnetism Galvanometer
1794-1843 Åbo, StockholmJohan Gadolin, Carl Gustaf Mosander elements Yttrium Y 39
1796 Edward Jenner immunology Vaccination
1796 Pierre-Simon Laplace astronomy Origin of our solar system
1796 Georges Cuvier, John Hunter comparative anatomy Comparative anatomy
1797 James Hall geology Catastrophist geology
1797 ParisLouis Nicolas Vauquelin elements Chromium Cr 24
1798 Thomas Robert Malthus demography Population pressure
1798 John Michell, Henry Cavendish geodesy ‘Weighing’ the world
1798,1828 Paris, BerlinLouis Nicolas Vauquelin, Friedrich Wöhler, Antoine Bussy elements Beryllium Be 004
1799 Alexander von Humboldt philosophy of science zoology Humboldt’s voyage
1799 Alessandro Volta electromagnetism Electric battery
1800 Thomas Young physics Wave nature of light
1801 Giuseppe Piazzi, Carl Friedrich Gauss astronomy Discovery of an asteroid
1801 LondonCharles Hatchett elements Niobium Nb 41
1802 UppsalaAnders Gustaf Ekeberg elements Tantalum Ta 73
1802-1879 Humphrey Davy, Thomas Edison physics Incandescent light
1803,1830,1867 Mexico City, Stockholm, ManchesterAndrés Manuel del Río, Nils Gabriel Sefström, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Henry Enfield Roscoe elements Vanadium V 23
1803,1839 Berlin, Bastnäs, StockholmMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Wilhelm Hisinger, Carl Gustaf Mosander elements Cerium Ce 58
1804 LondonWilliam Hyde Wollaston, Smithson Tennant elements Rhodium Palladium Iridium Osmium
1807 LondonHumphry Davy elements Potassium K 019
1807 LondonHumphry Davy elements Sodium Na 011
1808 LondonHumphry Davy elements Calcium Ca 020
1808 London, ParisHumphry Davy, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Louis Jacques Thénard elements Boron B 005
1808 John Dalton physics Atomic theory
1809 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck evolution Acquired characteristics
1811,1909 Amedeo Avogadro, Jean Baptiste Perrin stoichiometry Avogadro constant
1811 DijonBernard Courtois elements Iodine I 53
1813 Jöns Jacob Berzelius chemistry Chemical nomenclature
1814 Joseph von Fraunhofer physics Spectral lines
1815 William Smith stratigraphy Fossil sequences
1815 William Prout physics Prout’s hypothesis
1816 Francis Ronalds electromagnetism Electrical telegraph
1817 Christiaan Huygens, Gaspard de Prony, Henry Kater kinematics Kater’s pendulum
1817 Heinz Christian Pander embryology Germ layers
1817,1821 Stockholm, LondonJohan August Arfwedson, William Thomas Brande elements Lithium Li 003
1817 GöttingenKarl Samuel Leberecht Hermann, Friedrich Stromeyer, Johann Christoff Heinrich Roloff elements Cadmium Cd 48
1817 StockholmJöns Jacob Berzelius, Johan Gottlieb Gahn elements Selenium Se 34
1819 Augustin-Jean Fresnel, François Arago optics Wave optics
1820 Hans Christian Øersted, André-Marie Ampère, Michael Faraday electromagnetism Electromagnetism
1821 Humphry Davy, Henry Cavendish electromagnetism Electric conductivity
1821,1834 Thomas Johann Seebeck, Hans Christian Ørsted electromagnetism Thermoelectric effect
1822 Jean François Champollion linguistics Deciphering hieroglyphics
1822 Charles Babbage computer science Difference engine
1823 StockholmJöns Jacob Berzelius elements Silicon Si 014
1823 Michael Faraday physics Liquefaction of gases
1825,1827 Copenhagen, BerlinHans Christian Ørsted, Friedrich Wöhler elements Aluminium Al 013
1825,1826 HeidelbergCarl Jacob Löwig, Leopold Gmelin, Antoine Jérôme Balard elements Bromine Br 35
1825 Michael Faraday chemistry Benzene
1826 Karl Ernst von Baer embryology Eggs and embryos
1827 Georg Ohm electromagnetism Ohm’s law
1828 Friedrich Wöhler chemistry Synthesis of urea
1829 Nicolai Lobachevsky, János Bolyai, Bernhard Riemann geometry Non-Euclidean geometry
1829 StockholmMorten Thrane Esmark, Jöns Jacob Berzelius elements Thorium Th 90
1830 Charles Lyell geology Principles of geology
1831 Michael Faraday electromagnetism Faraday’s law of induction
1831 Michael Faraday electromagnetism Electric generator
1831 Michael Faraday acoustics Faraday wave
1833 William Whewell philosophy of science “Scientist”
1833,1843 Samuel Hunter Christie, Charles Wheatstone electromagnetism Wheatstone bridge
1834 Édouard Lartet, Louis Lartet primatology Cro-Magnons
1834 Michael Faraday physics Laws of electrolysis
1834 Jean Charles Athanase Peltier electromagnetism Peltier effect
1834 Michael Faraday chemistry Ion
1834 Michael Faraday chemistry Faraday efficiency
1835 Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis atmospheric_sciences Coriolis effect
1836 Michael Faraday electromagnetism Faraday cage
1838 Friedrich Bessel astronomy Distance to a star
1839 Matthias Jakob Schleiden, Theodor Schwann, Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier, Hugo von Mohl, Robert Remak, Rudolf Virchow cell biology Cell theory
1839 StockholmCarl Gustaf Mosander elements Lanthanum La 57
1839-1887 Joseph Schipfer, Joachim Faiguet de Villeneuve, Jean Pirro, Johann Martin Schleyer, L. L. Zamenhof linguistics International auxiliary language
1840 Louis Agassiz atmospheric sciences Ice age
1841 Johann Christian Poggendorff electromagnetism Potentiometer
1842 Richard Owen evolution paleontology Dinosaur
1842 Christian Doppler physics Doppler effect
1842 James Prescott Joule electromagnetism Magnetostriction
1843 Heinrich Schwabe astronomy Sunspot cycle
1843 StockholmCarl Gustaf Mosander elements Terbium Tb 65
1843 StockholmCarl Gustaf Mosander elements Erbium Er 68
1844 KazanKarl Ernst Claus elements Ruthenium Ru 44
1845 William Parsons astronomy Spiral galaxies
1845-1913 Michael Faraday, John Kerr, Aimé Cotton, Woldemar Voigt, Pieter Zeeman, Henri Mouton, Johannes Stark, Antonino Lo Surdo electromagnetism Magneto-optic and electro-optic effects
1846 John Couch Adams, Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier, Johann Gottfried Galle astronomy Discovery of Neptune
1846-1868 Hugo von Mohl, Jan Evangelista Purkyně, Thomas Henry Huxley cell biology Protoplasm
1847 Benjamin Thompson, Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, James Prescott Joule, Rudolf Clausius thermodynamics Laws of thermodynamics
1847 George Boole computer science Boolean algebra
1848 William Lord Kelvin thermometry Kelvin scale
1851 Léon Foucault geodesy Foucault’s pendulum
1851 George Gabriel Stokes fluid dynamics Reynolds number
1852-1854 William Benjamin Carpenter, Michael Faraday, James Braid, Michel Eugène Chevreul behavioral science Ideomotor phenomenon
1854 John Snow pathology Cholera and the pump
1854,1884 Filippo Pacini, Robert Koch bacteriology Vibrio cholerae
1855 Robert Bunsen, Peter Desaga chemistry Bunsen burner
1855,1865 James Thomson, Carlo Marangoni thermodynamics Marangoni effect
1856 Hermann Schaaffhausen primatology Neanderthal man
1856 William Henry Perkin chemistry Mauve
1857 Heinrich Geißler electromagnetism Geissler tube
1858 Rudolf Virchow cell biology Communities of cells
1859 Charles Darwin evolution Origin of species
1859 Robert Bunsen, Gustav Kirchhoff chemistry Analytical spectroscopy
1860 Richard Owen, Thomas Henry Huxley evolution Archaeopteryx
1860,1882 HeidelbergRobert Bunsen, Gustav Kirchhoff, Carl Setterberg elements Caesium Cs 55
1860 John Hogg protistology Protist
1861 HeidelbergRobert Bunsen, Gustav Kirchhoff elements Rubidium Rb 37
1861 Paul Broca anatomy Mapping speech
1861-1862 London, LilleWilliam Crookes, Claude-Auguste Lamy elements Thallium Tl 81
1861 Henry Walter Bates evolution Batesian mimicry
1863 John Tyndall atmospheric sciences Greenhouse effect
1863 FreibergFerdinand Reich, Hieronymous Theodor Richter elements Indium In 49
1864 James Clerk Maxwell electromagnetism Maxwell’s equations
1865 Claude Bernard metabolism Regulating the body
1865 August Kekulé chemistry Benzene ring
1865 Joseph Lister medicine Antiseptic surgery
1865 Gregor Johann Mendel genetics Laws of inheritance
1867 Alfred Nobel chemistry Dynamite
1868-1895 Guntur, West HampsteadPierre Janssen, Norman Lockyer, Luigi Palmieri, William Ramsay, Per Teodor Cleve, Nils Abraham Langlet elements Helium He 002
1869 Dmitri Mendeleev chemistry periodic table Periodic table
1869 Johann Wilhelm Hittorf electromagnetism Cathode ray
1869-1875 William Crookes electromagnetism Crookes tube
1871 Francis Herbert Wenham aerodynamics Wind tunnel
1873 Johannes Diederik van der Waals chemistry Changes of state
1873 William Crookes fluid dynamics Crookes radiometer
1873,1880 Frederick Guthrie, Thomas Edison electromagnetism Thermionic emission
1873 Josiah Willard Gibbs thermodynamics Gibbs free energy
1874,1904 Karl Ferdinand Braun, Henry Harrison Chase Dunwoody, Greenleaf Whittier Pickard electromagnetism Crystal diode
1875 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran elements Gallium Ga 31
1876 Thomas Edison philosophy of science Industrial research laboratory
1876 Alexander Graham Bell telecommunication Telephone
1876 Aloys Pollender, Casimir Davaine, Pierre François Olive Rayer, Robert Koch bacteriology Bacillus anthracis
1876 Josiah Willard Gibbs thermodynamics Chemical potential
1877 Giovanni Schiaparelli astronomy Canals on Mars
1878 Louis Pasteur bacteriology Germ theory
1878 Walther Flemming, Edouard Van Beneden, Otto Bütschli, Eduard Strasburger cell biology Mitosis
1878,1907 Geneva, ParisJean Charles Galissard de Marignac, Georges Urbain elements Ytterbium Yb 70
1878-1879 Geneva, UppsalaMarc Delafontaine, Jacques-Louis Soret, Per Teodor Cleve elements Holmium Ho 67
1878 Fritz Müller evolution Müllerian mimicry
1879 UppsalaPer Teodor Cleve elements Thulium Tm 69
1879 UppsalaLars Fredrik Nilson elements Scandium Sc 21
1879 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran elements Samarium Sm 62
1880-1881 Jean Joseph Henri Toussaint, Louis Pasteur immunology Anthrax vaccine
1880,1881 Pierre Curie, Jacques Curie, Gabriel Lippmann electromagnetism Piezoelectricity
1880 GenevaJean Charles Galissard de Marignac elements Gadolinium Gd 64
1881 George Miller Sternberg, Louis Pasteur bacteriology Streptococcus pneumoniae
1882 Élie Metchnikoff immunology Cellular immunity
1882 Benjamin Marten, Robert Koch bacteriology Mycobacterium tuberculosis
1884 Marcellus Gilmore Edson food science Peanut butter
1884 Hans Christian Gram bacteriology Gram staining
1885 Eduard Suess geophysics Mountain formation
1885 Pierre Paul Émile Roux, Louis Pasteur immunology Rabies vaccine
1885 ViennaCarl Auer von Welsbach elements Praseodymium Pr 59
1885 ViennaCarl Auer von Welsbach elements Neodymium Nd 60
1886 ParisHenri Moissan elements Fluorine F 009
1886 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran elements Dysprosium Dy 66
1886 FreibergClemens Winkler elements Germanium Ge 32
1887 Albert A. Michelson, Edward W. Morley physics Michelson-Morley experiment
1888 Hermann Hellriegel botany Nitrogen fixation
1888-1927 Louis Le Prince, Thomas Edison, Auguste and Louis Lumière optics Cinematography
1889 Camillo Golgi, Santiago Ramón y Cajal neuroscience Nervous system
1889 Francis Galton biometrics Measuring individuals
1889 George Francis FitzGerald electromagnetism Length contraction
1889 George and Elizabeth Peckham evolution Aggressive mimicry
1889 Friedrich Paschen electromagnetism Paschen’s law
1890 Emil Adolf von Behring, Shibasaburō Kitasato immunology Antitoxins
1890 Alfred Russel Wallace, Edward Bagnall evolution Aposematism
1890-1901 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Eugène-Anatole Demarçay elements Europium Eu 63
1890 Edouard Branly electromagnetism Coherer
1891 Eugène Dubois primatology Java man
1893 Rudolf Diesel thermodynamics Diesel engine
1893 Alphonse Bertillon biometrics Anthropometry
1894 Emil Adolf Hermann Fischer chemistry Enzyme specificity
1894 LondonJohn William Strutt Lord Rayleigh, William Ramsay elements Argon Ar 018
1895 Wilhelm Röntgen electromagnetism X-rays
1895 Sigmund Freud psychology Libido
1895 Pierre Curie metrology Curie’s law
1895 Albert Calmette immunology Antivenom
1896 Henri Becquerel, Marie Curie, Pierre Curie, Ernest Rutherford, Frederick Soddy physics Radioactivity
1896 Guglielmo Marconi telecommunication Radio
1896 Ernest Hanbury Hankin medicine Preventing cholera
1896,1902 Ernest Rutherford, Guglielmo Marconi electromagnetism Magnetic detector
1896 Karol Pollak electromagnetism Diode bridge
1897 Arthur Eichengrün, Felix Hoffmann pharmacology Aspirin
1897 Joseph John Thomson physics Electron
1897 Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, Patrick Manson, Ronald Ross parasitology Malarial parasite
1897 John Sealy Townsend physics Townsend discharge
1898 Martinus Beijerinck virology Viruses
1898 LondonWilliam Ramsay, Morris Travers elements Krypton Kr 36
1898 LondonWilliam Ramsay, Morris Travers elements Neon Ne 010
1898 LondonWilliam Ramsay, Morris Travers elements Xenon Xe 54
1898 ParisMarie Curie, Pierre Curie elements Polonium Po 84
1898 ParisMarie Curie, Pierre Curie elements Radium Ra 88
1899-1910 Paris, Montreal, Halle, LondonMarie Curie, Pierre Curie, Robert Bowie Owens, Ernest Rutherford, Friedrich Ernst Dorn, André-Louis Debierne, William Ramsay, Robert Whytlaw-Gray elements Radon Rn 86
1899,1902 Paris, BrunswickAndré-Louis Debierne, Friedrich Oskar Giesel elements Actinium Ac 89
1900 Max Planck quantum mechanics Planck constant
1900 Max Planck, Albert Einstein quantum mechanics Quanta
1901 Karl Landsteiner medicine Blood groups
1901 Reginald Fessenden electromagnetism Heterodyne
1902 Theodor Boveri, Walter Sutton genetics Boveri-Sutton chromosome theory
1902 Reginald Fessenden electromagnetism Hot wire barretter
1903 Henri Poincaré mathematics Chaos theory
1903 Wilbur Wright, Orville Wright aerodynamics Airplane
1903 Reginald Fessenden electromagnetism Electrolytic detector
1904 Alfred Binet psychometrics Intelligence testing
1904 Ivan Pavlov psychology Conditioned reflexes
1904 Hendrik Lorentz, Henri Poincaré mathematics Conditioned reflexes
1904 William Bateson, Edith Rebecca Saunders, Reginald Punnett genetics Genetic linkage
1904 Christian Hülsmeyer electromagnetism Telemobiloscope
1904 Ernst Alexanderson electromagnetism Alexanderson alternator
1904 Ludwig Prandtl fluid dynamics Boundary layer
1904 John Ambrose Fleming electromagnetism Fleming valve
1905 Albert Einstein physics Special relativity
1905 Karl Ferdinand Braun electromagnetism Phased array
1906 Frederick Gowland Hopkins food science Vitamins
1906 Richard Dixon Oldham, Andrija Mohorovičić geophysics Earth interior
1906 Reginald Fessenden telecommunication AM broadcasting
1906-1912 Lee de Forest, Irving Langmuir electromagnetism Triode
1907 Bertram Boltwood geology Dating rocks
1907 Leo Baekeland materials science Bakelite
1907 Paris, Vienna, DurhamGeorges Urbain, Carl Auer von Welsbach, Charles James elements Lutetium Lu 71
1907 Pierre Weiss electromagnetism Magnetic domain
1908 Robert Brown, Ludwig Boltzmann, Albert Einstein, Jean Baptiste Perrin physics Brownian motion
1908 Kikunae Ikeda food science Umami
1908,1935 Paul Gelmo, Gerhard Domagk pharmacology Sulfanilamide
1908,1925 London, BerlinMasataka Ogawa, Walter Noddack, Ida Tacke, Otto Berg elements Rhenium Re 75
1908-1958 Kristian Birkeland, Carl Størmer, James Van Allen electromagnetism Van Allen belts
1909 Fritz Haber chemistry Synthesis of ammonia
1909 Archibald Garrod genetics Inborn errors of metabolism
1909 Charles Doolittle Walcott paleontology Burgess shale
1909 Hugo de Vries evolution Mutationism
1910 Paul Ehrlich pharmacology Chemotherapy
1910 Thomas Hunt Morgan, Alfred Henry Sturtevant, Calvin Bridges, Hermann Joseph Muller genetics Genes
1911 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes physics Superconductivity
1911 Victor Francis Hess physics Cosmic rays
1911 Pierre Weiss electromagnetism Weiss magneton
1912 Alfred Lothar Wegener geophysics Continental drift
1913 Ernest Rutherford, Niels Bohr physics Atom
1913 Frederick Soddy, Kazimierz Fajans physics Radioactive displacement law
1913-1918 Karlsruhe, Glasgow, BerlinOswald Helmuth Göhring, Georg von Hevesy, John Arnold Cranston, Frederick Soddy, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner elements Protactinium Pa 91
1913 Henry Moseley electromagnetism Atomic battery
1913 Nikola Tesla fluid dynamics Tesla turbine
1913 Niels Bohr electromagnetism Bohr magneton
1914 Henry Hallett Dale, George Barger, Otto Loewi neuroscience Neurotransmitters
1914 Milutin Milanković atmospheric_sciences Climate cycles
1915 Albert Einstein physics General relativity
1915,1917 Frederick Twort, Félix d’Herelle virology Bacteriophage
1915 Alfred Lauck Parson electromagnetism Parson magneton
1916 Gilbert N. Lewis physics Chemical bond
1917-1960 Albert Einstein, Charles Hard Townes, James P. Gordon, Theodore Harold Maiman physics Stimulated emission
1918 Henrietta Swan Leavitt, Harlow Shapley, Edwin Hubble, Walter Baade astronomy The universe
1918 Ronald Fisher, John Burdon Sanderson Haldane, Sewall Wright, Theodosius Dobzhansky evolution Neo-Darwinism
1919 Heinrich Barkhausen electromagnetism Barkhausen effect
1920 Vilhelm Bjerknes, Jacob Bjerknes atmospheric sciences Weather forecasting
1920 Arthur Eddington, Hans Bethe, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, Ejnar Hertzsprung, Henry Norris Russell astronomy Stellar evolution
1920 Joseph Valasek electromagnetism Ferroelectricity
1921 Frederick Banting, Charles Herbert Best medicine Insulin
1921 Albert Calmette, Camille Guérin immunology Tuberculosis vaccine
1922 Johannes Schmidt ichthyology Eel metamorphosis
1922 Francis William Aston, Frederick Soddy chemistry Isotope
1923 Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov ecology Crop diversity
1923 CopenhagenDirk Coster, Georg von Hevesy elements Hafnium Hf 72
1923 Arthur Holly Compton physics Compton scattering
1924 Jean Piaget psychology Child development
1925 Raymond Dart primatology Tuang child
1925 Werner Heisenberg, Louis de Broglie, Erwin Schrödinger quantum mechanics Wave-particle duality
1925 Satyendra Nath Bose, Albert Einstein physics Bose-Einstein condensate
1926 Erwin Schrödinger quantum mechanics Schrödinger equation
1927 Werner Heisenberg quantum mechanics Uncertainty principle
1928 Alexander Fleming pharmacology Penicillin
1928 Paul Dirac quantum mechanics Dirac equation
1929 Motonori Matuyama plate tectonics Geomagnetic reversals
1929 Georges Lemaître, Edwin Hubble astronomy Expanding universe
1930 Felix Bloch electromagnetism Magnon
1930 Erwin Schrödinger quantum mechanics Zitterbewegung
1931 Kurt Gödel logic Incompleteness theorems
1931 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar astronomy White dwarfs
1932 James Chadwick physics Neutron
1932 Paul Dirac, Carl David Anderson physics Antimatter
1932 Igor Tamm physics Phonon
1933 Walther Meissner, Robert Ochsenfeld electromagnetism Meissner effect
1934 Henri Coandă aerodynamics Coandă effect
1935 Wallace Carothers materials science Nylon
1935 Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen entomology Nylon
1935 John Sealy Townsend, Hans Geiger, Walther Müller physics Geiger counter
1935 Ettore Majorana physics Majorana fermion
1935 Irène Joliot-Curie, Frédéric Joliot-Curie physics Induced radioactivity
1936 Inge Lehmann geophysics Inner core
1937 Hans Adolf Krebs metabolism Citric-acid cycle
1937 PalermoEmilio Segrè, Carlo Perrier elements Technetium Tc 43
1937 Pyotr Kapitsa, John F. Allen, Don Misener physics Superfluidity
1937 Victor Goldschmidt geophysics Goldschmidt classification
1938 B. F. Skinner psychology Radical behaviorism
1938 Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer, J. L. B. Smith ichthyology Coelacanth
1939 Paul Hermann Müller chemistry DDT
1939 ParisMarguerite Perey elements Francium Fr 87
1940 Donald Griffin, Robert Galambos zoology Bat echolocation
1940 BerkeleyDale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, Emilio Segrè elements Astatine At 85
1940 BerkeleyEdwin McMillan, Philip Abelson elements Neptunium Np 93
1940 BerkeleyGlenn T. Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, Joseph W. Kennedy, Edwin McMillan elements Plutonium Pu 94
1942 Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassmann, Lise Meitner, Otto Robert Frisch, Rudolf Peierls, Enrico Fermi physics Nuclear fission
1942-
1946
Niels Bohr, James Chadwick, Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, Richard Feynman, Otto Robert Frisch, Willard Libby, John von Neumann Fat Man - Manhattan Project
1943 Salvador Luria, Max Delbrück genetics Bacterial genes
1943 Warren Sturgis McCulloch, Walter Pitts computer science Neural networks
1944 John von Neumann, Oskar Morgenstern game theory Game theory
1944-1960 Russell Earl Marker, George Rosenkranz, Carl Djerassi, Luis E. Miramontes, Frank B. Colton, Margaret Sanger, Katharine McCormick, Gregory Pincus, Min Chueh Chang, John Rock sociology pharmacology The pill
1944 Berkeley, ChicagoGlenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, Albert Ghiorso elements Curium Cm 96
1944 Berkeley, ChicagoGlenn T. Seaborg, Leon O. Morgan, Ralph A. James, Albert Ghiorso elements Americium Am 95
1945 Karl von Frisch entomology Dancing bees
1945 Oak RidgeCharles D. Coryell, Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin elements Promethium Pm 61
1946 Charles Babbage, Alan Turing, John von Neumann computer science Computer
1946 Melvin Calvin botany Photosynthesis
1946 Walter M. Elsasser electromagnetism geophysics Dynamo theory
1947 Willard Frank Libby physics Radiocarbon dating
1947 John Tyler Bonner botany Slime-mold bodies
1947 William Shockley, Walter Houser Brattain, John Bardeen electromagnetism Transistor
1947 Dennis Gabor optics Holography
1948 Hans Bethe, Julian Schwinger, Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Freeman Dyson, Richard Feynman quantum mechanics Quantum electrodynamics
1948 Claude Shannon telecommunication Information theory
1948 Hendrik Casimir, Dirk Polder quantum mechanics Casimir effect
1949 Peter Medawar, Frank Macfarlane Burnet immunology Immune tolerance
1949 Linus Pauling molecular biology Sickle-cell disease
1949 BerkeleyGlenn T. Seaborg, Albert Ghiorso, Stanley Gerald Thompson elements Berkelium Bk 97
1950 Jan Oort cosmology Oort cloud
1950 BerkeleyStanley Gerald Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso, Glenn T. Seaborg elements Californium Cf 98
1951 Barbara McClintock genetics Jumping genes
1951 Boris Pavlovich Belousov, Anatoly Zhabotinsky chemistry Chemical oscillations
1952 Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Andrew Huxley neuroscience Nerve impulses
1952 Rita Levi-Montalcini, Stanley Cohen neuroscience Nerve growth
1952 Berkeley, Argonne, Los AlamosAlbert Ghiorso and co-workers at Berkeley, Argonne, and Los Alamos elements Einsteinium Es 99
1952 Berkeley, Argonne, Los AlamosAlbert Ghiorso and co-workers at Berkeley, Argonne, and Los Alamos elements Fermium Fm 100
1953 S. Donald Stookey materials science CorningWare
1953 Stanley Miller, Harold Urey evolution Abiogenesis
1953 Nathaniel Kleitman, Eugene Aserinsky, William C. Dement behavioral science Rapid-eye-movement sleep
1953 Francis Crick, James Watson genetics DNA structure
1955 John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, Frederick Chapman Robbins, Jonas Salk, Albert Sabin immunology Polio vaccine
1955 BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Bernard G. Harvey, Gregory R. Choppin, Stanley Gerald Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg elements Mendelevium Md 101
1956 Tsung-Dao Lee, Chen-Ning Yang physics Parity violation
1956 George Wald neuroscience Visual phototransduction
1956 Wolfgang Pauli, Frederick Reines, Clyde Cowan physics Neutrino
1958 Dubna, BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, John R. Walton, Glenn T. Seaborg, E. D. Donets, V. A. Shchegolev, V. A. Ermakov elements Nobelium No 102
1958 Rudolf Mössbauer physics Mössbauer effect
1961-1971 Berkeley, DubnaAlbert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon Larsh, Robert M. Latimer, Georgy Flerov, I. Zvara, G. M. Ter-Akopian, V. A. Shchegolev, V. L. Mikheev elements Lawrencium Lr 103
1969 BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Matti Nurmia, James Andrew Harris, Kari Eskola, Pirkko Eskola elements Rutherfordium Rf 104
1970 Dubna, BerkeleyGeorgy Flyorov, V. A. Druin, A. G. Demin, Yu. V. Lobanov, Nikolai Konstantinovich Skobelev, G. N. Akap’ev, B. V. Fefilov, I. V. Kolesov, K. A. Gavrilov, Yu. P. Kharitonov, L. P. Chelnokov, Albert Ghiorso, Matti Nurmia, James Andrew Harris, Kari Eskola, Pirkko Eskola elements Dubnium Db 105
1974 BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Joachim Michael Nitschke, José R. Alonso, Carol T. Alonso, Matti Nurmia, Glenn T. Seaborg, E. Kenneth Hulet, Ronald W. Lougheed elements Seaborgium Sg 106
1981 DarmstadtGottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, Sigurd Hofmann, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Willibrord Reisdorf, Karl-Heinz Schmidt, J. R. H. Schneider, W. F. W. Schneider, Christoph-Clemens Sahm, B. Thuma elements Bohrium Bh 107
1982 DarmstadtGottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, Sigurd Hofmann, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Klaus Poppensieker, Willibrord Reisdorf, Karl-Heinz Schmidt, K. Schneider, Christoph-Clemens Sahm, Detlef Vermeulen elements Meitnerium Mt 109
1984 DarmstadtGottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Sigurd Hofmann, Fritz Peter Heßberger, J. Keller, Klaus Poppensieker, Willibrord Reisdorf, Karl-Heinz Schmidt, H.-J. Schött, Matti Leino, R. Hingmann elements Hassium Hs 108
1994 DarmstadtSigurd Hofmann, Gottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Fritz Peter Heßberger, H. J. Schött, Victor Ninov elements Darmstadtium Ds 110
1994 DarmstadtSigurd Hofmann, Victor Ninov, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Gottfried Münzenberg, H. J. Schött elements Roentgenium Rg 111
1996 DarmstadtSigurd Hofmann, Victor Ninov, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Gottfried Münzenberg, H. J. Schött elements Copernicium Cn 112
1999-2007 DubnaYuri Oganessian, Alexander Vladimirovich Yeremin, Andre Georgievich Popeko, Sergey L. Bogomolov, German Vladimirovich Buklanov, M. L. Chelnokov, Victor Ivanovich Chepigin, Boris N. Gikal, Vladimir A. Gorshkov, Georgy G. Gulbekian, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Anatoly Petrovich Kabachenko, Anton Yurievich Lavrentiev, Oleg Nikolaevich Malyshev, Jozef Rohach, Roman Nikolaevich Sagaidak, Sigurd Hofmann, S. Saro, G. Giardina, Kosuke Morita elements Flerovium Fl 114
2000 DubnaYuri Oganessian, V. K. Utyonkov, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, G. G. Gulbekian, Sergey L. Bogomolov, B. N. Gikal, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, O. V. Ivanov, G. V. Buklanov, K. Subotic, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Ken J. Moody, John F. Wild, Nancy J. Stoyer, Mark A. Stoyer, Ronald W. Lougheed, C. A. Laue, Ye. A. Karelin, A. N. Tatarinov elements Livermorium Lv 116
2004 DubnaYuri Oganessian, V. K. Utyonkoy, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, G. G. Gulbekian, Sergey L. Bogomolov, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, A. A. Voinov, G. V. Buklanov, K. Subotic, V. I. Zagrebaev, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Joshua B. Patin, Ken J. Moody, John F. Wild, Mark A. Stoyer, Nancy J. Stoyer, Dawn A. Shaughnessy, Jacqueline M. Kenneally, Ronald W. Lougheed elements Moscovium Mc 115
2006 DubnaYuri Oganessian, V. K. Utyonkov, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, O. V. Ivanov, A. A. Voinov, K. Subotic, V. I. Zagrebaev, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Ken J. Moody, John F. Wild, Mark A. Stoyer, Nancy J. Stoyer, C. A. Laue, Dawn A. Shaughnessy, Joshua B. Patin, Ronald W. Lougheed elements Oganesson Og 118
2009 DubnaYuri Oganessian, F. Sh. Abdullin, P. D. Bailey, D. E. Benker, M. E. Bennett, S. N. Dmitriev, J. G. Ezold, Joseph H. Hamilton, R. A. Henderson, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Yu. V. Lobanov, A. N. Mezentsev, Ken J. Moody, S. L. Nelson, A. N. Polyakov, C. E. Porter, A. V. Ramayya, F. D. Riley, James B. Roberto, M. A. Ryabinin, K. P. Rykaczewski, R. N. Sagaidak, Dawn A. Shaughnessy, I. V. Shirokovsky, Mark A. Stoyer, V. G. Subbotin, R. Sudowe, A. M. Sukhov, Yu. S. Tsyganov, V. K. Utyonkov, A. A. Voinov, G. K. Vostokin, P. A. Wilk elements Tennessine Ts 117
2012 WakoKosuke Morita, Kouji Morimoto, Daiya Kaji, Takahiro Akiyama, Shin-ichi Goto, Hiromitsu Haba, Eiji Ideguchi, Kenji Katori, Hiriyuki Koura, Hidetoshi Kikunaga, Hisaaki Kudo, Testuya Ohnishi, Akira Ozawa, Nozomi Sato, Toshimi Suda, Keisuke Sueki, Fuyuki Tokanai, Takayuki Yamaguchi, Akira Yoneda, Atsushi Yoshida elements Nihonium Nh 113
2018 Tom Sharp linguistics Shɑrpεn
Bonus
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