Volume 1. Chapter 14. Structure


Units repeat as though moving in time while establishing a baseline rhythm. Frames of a film project continuity because we need reality to exist in the dark between strobes.

Lengths and weights

An arithmetic sequence mimics reality, while in real life equal lengths are seldom equal in weight.


A chessboard alternates black and white, whereas in politics and war many colors masquerade as black and white.


Whether constant, incremented, or decremented, a repeated element can be extended indefinitely, but remain divisible, without identity. If you remove a part of a living organism, you change its character and possibly take its life. Each part supports the others. Its structure and identity are intimately fused. Variations create energies that result in visible mobility.


The nature of tiles is to have a predictable tessellation, but none of my tiles are quite the same.

Not woven

If the parts were woven the whole would seem less natural. Instead, neither dovetail nor glue connect patterns of organic growth like deposits laid down over time as the earth tilted and fell. Fields, therefore, are laid out to follow the rise and fall of the restless countryside and the course of the creek.

Each one is different

Each plant is different; each insect, each animal lives its own life, dies its own death, and is different from other creatures of its species. We say each snowflake is unique, but here we say that each fruit fly, each cornstalk, each grass blade is different.


Repetition can achieve identity, establishing a unique structure, where the design takes on a character of its own. * From the cities in our minds, we are making a city, building by building, block by block, in which we soon will live.