1791-1910 Titanium

The book of science

Tom Sharp

Creed, Berlin, Stockholm, TroyWilliam Gregor, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Matthew Hunter elements


Atomic number 22


The Hunter process for producing titanium is inefficient non-scalable, so production of titanium was confined to the laboratory until William Justin Kroll, in 1940, invented a more complex but scalable process.

For each element, I have tried to establish a place or region where the discovery was made, or, for the prehistorical elements, where earliest evidence of the element has been found. For me, the place is like the terroir of a good wine. But it is sad to see how those early origins have been lost.

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