Gutenberg introduced the hand mould, the mechanical printing press, and oil-based inks
that allowed duplex printing.
He made his type with an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony.
The Gutenberg Bible was rubricated (it included words printed in red)
and illuminated (intial letters were elaborated and painted by hand).
The technologies that led to his work were goldsmithing, cutting dies for stamping coins,
and Roman screw presses for producing wine and olive oil.
See also in The book of science:
Readings on wikipedia: