The work of many mathematicians
led to the work of James Gregory and Isaac Barrow.
A fuller history could name
Eudoxus, Liu Hui, Archimedes, Zu Chongzhi, Alhazen,
Pierre de Fermat, Bonaventura Cavalieri, Evangelista Torricelli, and John Wallis.
Then there were Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz,
who invented calculus as a mathematics of motion and change.
See also in The book of science:
Readings on wikipedia: