benzine ring (c6h6)

Contents

The book of science

Tom Sharp


Chronological index of poems and commentaries

Year Poems and
Commentary
Scientists
99, 000 - 13, 000 BCE Pigment Palaeolithic people archaeology
8700 BCE Copper Cu 29 Middle East elements
6400 BCE Lead Pb 82 Çatalhöyük elements
4600 BCE Gold Au 79 Varna Necropolis, Bulgaria elements
4400 - 3100 BCE Cosmetic pigment Prehistoric Egyptians archaeology
4000 BCE Silver Ag 47 Asia Minor elements
4000 BCE Carbon C 006 China, India, Egypt, Sumeria elements
3200 BCE Iron Fe 26 Gerzeh elements
3100 BCE Antimony Sb 51 Egypt elements
3000 BCE Tin Sn 50 Mesopotamia, Balkans elements
2782 BCE Egyptian calendar Old Kingdom of Egypt astronomy
2648 BCE Step pyramid Imhotep architecture
2637 BCE Chinese calendar Huangdi astronomy
2500 BCE Arsenic As 33 Near East elements
2400 BCE - 1820 CE Computing devices Jabir ibn Aflah, Al-Biruni, Ismail al-Jazari, Jamshīd al-Kāshī, Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī, Apollonius of Perga, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Liang Lingzan, Samuel Morland, John Napier, Willgodt Theophil Odhner, William Oughtred, Blaise Pascal, Giovanni Poleni, Yi Xing mechanics
2000 BCE Sulfur S 016 China, India elements
2000 - 1500 BCE Mercury Hg 80 China, India, Egypt elements
1000 BCE Zinc Zn 30 Judea, India, Nagarjuna elements
1000 BCE Bismuth Bi 83 Egypt, Greece, Rome, China, France elements
546 BCE Thales’ theorem Thales of Miletus geometry
546 BCE Triboelectric effect Thales of Miletus electromagnetism
495 BCE Proof of the Pythagorean theorem Pythagoras geometry
5th century BCE Kite Mozi, Lu Ban aerodynamics
400 BCE Medicine Hippocrates medicine
335 BCE Science Aristotle philosophy of science
320 BCE Botany Theophrastus botany
300 BCE Geometry Euclid geometry
260 BCE Mechanical advantage Archimedes mechanics
240 BCE Geodesy Eratosthenes geodesy cartography
206 BCE Compass Chinese, Han dynasty electromagnetism
134 BCE Astronomy Hipparchus astronomy
118 BCE - 1953 Cipher Polybius, Julius Caesar, Giovan Battista Bellaso, Antoine and Bonaventure Rossignol, Charles Wheatstone, Frank Miller, Felix Delastelle, Fritz Nebel, Lester S. Hill, John F. Byrne cryptography
46 BCE Julian calendar Julius Caesar astronomy
70 Windmill Hero of Alexandria (Heron) mechanics
70 Traditional medicine Pedanius Dioscorides medicine
105 Paper Cai Lun manufacturing
140 Geocentrism Claudius Ptolemy astronomy
180 Medical research Galen medicine
200 Woodblock printing, detail from Manual of the Mustard Seed Garden Chinese, Han dynasty manufacturing
285 Diophantine equation Diophantus mathematics
359 Hebrew calendar Hillel II, Maimonides astronomy
628 Formulas with zero Brahmagupta mathematics
820 Algebra Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī mathematics
9th century Gunpowder Chinese, Tang Dynasty chemistry
10th century Rocket Chinese, Tang dynasty manufacturing
984, 1602, 1621, 1637 Snell’s law Ibn Sahl, Thomas Harriot, Willebrord Snellius, René Descartes optics
1025 Optics Alhazen (Abū-‘Alī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥaytham) optics
1025 Medicine bottle - The Canon of Medicine Avicenna (Ibn-Sīnā) medicine
1040 Movable type reading Bi Sheng Bi Sheng manufacturing
1050 Maya calendar Mayan astronomy
1202 Fibonacci sequence - Number system Leonardo Pisano Bigollo (Fibonacci) mathematics
1413 - 1420 Perspective Filippo Brunelleschi, Leon Battista Alberti, Piero della Francesca optics
1450, 1481 Hygrometer Nicolaus de Cusa, Leonardo da Vinci atmospheric sciences
1485 Toxicology Leonardo da Vinci aerodynamics
1499 Steganography Johannes Trithemius cryptography
1538 Toxicology Paracelsus toxicology
1542 Nonius Pedro Nunes metrology astronomy
1543 Heliocentrism Nicolaus Copernicus astronomy
1543 Human anatomy Andreas Vesalius anatomy
1565 Fossils Conrad Gessner paleontology
1569 Mercator projection Gerardus Mercator cartography
1572 Nova Stella - Supernova Tycho Brahe astronomy
1590 - 1608 Virtual image - Microscope and telescope Zacharias Janssen, Hans Lippershey, Jacob Metius, Cornelis Drebbel optics
1600 Magnetism William Gilbert electromagnetism
1605 Bacon’s cipher Francis Bacon cryptography
1609 Planetary orbits Johannes Kepler astronomy
1610 Observational astronomy Galileo Galilei astronomy
1614 Logarithm John Napier mathematics
1614 Metabolism Santorio Santorio metabolism
1620 Scientific method Francis Bacon philosophy of science
1620 Submarine Cornelis Drebbel mechanics
1628 Circulation of the blood William Harvey anatomy
1631 Vernier scale Pierre Vernier metrology
1635 Magnetic declination Henry Gellibrand geophysics
1637 Cartesian coordinates René Descartes geometry
1637 Mersenne’s laws Pythagoras, Vincenzo Galilei, Marin Mersenne acoustics
1638 Kinematics Galileo Galilei kinematics
1638 Micrometer William Gascoigne metrology
1639 Transit of Venus Jeremiah Horrocks astronomy
1643 Atmospheric pressure Evangelista Torricelli, Blaise Pascal atmospheric sciences
1644 - 1869 Infographics William Playfair, Florence Nightingale, Charles Joseph Minard demography
1647 - 1678 Philosophical language Francis Lodwick, Thomas Urquhart, George Dalgarno, Thomas Wilkins, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz linguistics
1654 Probability theory Blaise Pascal, Pierre de Fermat probability
1656 Rings of Saturn Christiaan Huygens, James Clerk Maxwell astronomy
1656 Infinite and infinitesimal John Wallis mathematics
1657 Pendulum clock Christiaan Huygens horology
1661 Chymistry Robert Boyle chemistry
1661 Air pollution John Evelyn atmospheric sciences
1662 Boyle’s law Richard Towneley, Henry Power, Robert Boyle chemistry
1662 Fermat’s principle Pierre de Fermat optics
1665 - 1831 Cell Robert Hooke, Antonie van Leeuwenhock, Robert Brown cell biology
1666 Theory of color Isaac Newton optics
1668 Parasites Francesco Redi parasitology
1668, 1799 Units - Metric system John Wilkins (and the French Revolution) metrology
1668, 1669 Fundamental theorem of calculus James Gregory, Isaac Barrow mathematics
1669 Fossil shark tooth - Stratigraphy Nicolas Steno stratigraphy
1669 Epigenesis Jan Swammerdam entomology
1669 Birefringence Rasmus Bartholin optics
1669 Phosphorus P 015 HamburgHennig Brand elements
1670, 1886 spores and pollen - Palynology Nehemiah Grew, Robert Kidston palynology
1671 Planetary distances Giovanni Domenico Cassini astronomy
1671 Surveying the earth Jean Picard geodesy
1671 Gravimetry Jean Richer geodesy
1671, 1684 Calculus Isaac Newton, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz mathematics
1672, 1742, 1852 Magnus effect Isaac Newton, Benjamin Robins, Heinrich Gustav Magnus aerodynamics
1673 Flea by Hooke - Microorganisms Robert Hooke, Antonie van Leeuwenhock biology
1676 Speed of light Ole Rømer electromagnetism
1678 Hooke’s law Robert Hooke horology
1678, 1816 Huygens–Fresnel principle Christiaan Huygens, Augustin-Jean Fresnel optics
1678 - 1876 Internal combustion engine Jean de Hautefeuille, Christiaan Huygens, Denis Papin, François Isaac de Rivaz, Nicéphore Niépce, Claude Niépce, Samuel Brown, William Barnett, Eugenio Barsanti, Felice Matteucci, Étienne Lenoir, Alphonse Beau de Rochas, Nikolaus Otto, Eugen Langen thermodynamics
1679 Yin & yang - Binary number Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz mathematics
1679 Pressure cooker, safety valve Denis Papin pneumatics
1682 Memory Robert Hooke psychology
1683 Euler’s number Jacob Bernoulli, Leonhard Euler mathematics
1684 Fingerprint Nehemiah Grew biometrics
1687 Principia Mathematica Isaac Newton mathematics
1694 Plant sexuality Rudolf Jakob Camerarius botany
1699 Tribology Leonardo da Vinci, Guillaume Amontons physics
1701 Newton scale Isaac Newton thermometry
1701 Rømer scale Ole Rømer thermometry
1705 Halley’s comet Edmond Halley astronomy
1705, 1894 Plasma lamp Francis Hauksbee, Nikola Tesla physics
1706 Prussian blue Johann Jacob Diesbach chemistry
1724 Fahrenheit scale Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit thermometry
1729 Aberration of light James Bradley electromagnetism
1730 Réaumur scale René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur thermometry
1732 Delisle scale Joseph-Nicolas Delisle thermometry
1735 Cobalt Co 27 StockholmGeorg Brandt elements
1735 Trade winds George Hadley atmospheric_sciences
1735 Naming species Carl Linnaeus philosophy of science
1736 Graph theory Leonhard Euler mathematics
1736 - 1895 Topology Leonhard Euler, Antoine-Jean Lhuilier, August Ferdinand Möbius, Johann Benedict Listing, Henri Poincaré mathematics
1738 Bernoulli’s principle Daniel Bernoulli physics
1739 Dividing engine Henry Hindley metrology
1742 Centigrade scale Anders Celsius, Jean-Pierre Christin thermometry
1743 Ethnography Gerhard Friedrich Müller ethnography
1745 - 1746 Leyden jar Ewald Georg von Kleist, Pieter van Musschenbroek electromagnetism
1747 Electric charge Benjamin Franklin electromagnetism
1750 Platinum Pt 78 LondonAntonio de Ulloa, Charles Wood, William Brownrigg, William Hyde Wollaston, Smithson Tennant elements
1751 Nickel Ni 28 LosAxel Fredrik Cronstedt elements
1752 D’Alembert’s paradox Jean le Rond d’Alembert fluid dynamics
1755, 1808 Magnesium Mg 012 Glasgow, LondonJoseph Black, Humphry Davy elements
1756 Pyroelectricity Franz Ulrich Theodor Aepinus electromagnetism
1756 Leidenfrost effect Johann Gottlob Leidenfrost thermodynamics
1757 Triboelectric series Johan Carl Wilcke tribology
1758 Euler characteristic Leonhard Euler mathematics
1759, 1764 Pyrometer James Ferguson thermometry
1761 Latent heat Joseph Black thermodynamics
1763 Bayes’ theorem Thomas Bayes probability
1765 Spontaneous generation Lazzaro Spallanzani biology
1765 Steam engine James Watt thermodynamics
1768 Pi = C/d Johann Heinrich Lambert, Ferdinand von Lindemann mathematics
1770 - 1774 Manganese Mn 25 Uppsala, FalunTorbern Bergman, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Johan Gottlieb Gahn elements
1771, 1885 Knot theory Alexandre-Théophile Vandermonde, Peter Guthrie Tait mathematics
1772 Nitrogen N 007 EdinburghDaniel Rutherford elements
1772, 1796 Hydraulic ram John Whitehurst, Joseph-Michel Montgolfier mechanics
1774, 1808 Barium Ba 56 Uppsala, LondonCarl Wilhelm Scheele, Humphry Davy elements
1774 Oxygen O 008 Joseph Priestley, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Antoine Lavoisier elements
1774 Conservation of mass Antoine Lavoisier stoichiometry
1774, 1810 Chlorine Cl 017 Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Humphry Davy elements
1778, 1845 Diamagnetism Sebald Justinus Brugmans, Michael Faraday electromagnetism
1778, 1781 Molybdenum Mo 42 UppsalaCarl Wilhelm Scheele, Peter Jacob Hjelm elements
1780 Mysorean rockets Hyder Ali, Tipu Sultan manufacturing
1781 Discovery of Uranus William Herschel astronomy
1781, 1783 Tungsten W 74 Uppsala, BergaraTorbern Bergman, Juan José Elhuyar, Fausto Elhuyar elements
1782 Tellurium Te 52 TransylvaniaFranz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein, Martin Heinrich Klaproth elements
1783 Wedgwood scale Josiah Wedgwood thermometry
1784 Hydrogen H 001 Henry Cavendish elements
1784, 1903 Birkeland–Eyde process Henry Cavendish, Kristian Birkeland, Sam Eyde chemistry
1784 Black hole John Michell astrophysics
1785 Earth cycles James Hutton geology
1785 Coulomb’s law Charles-Augustin de Coulomb electromagnetism
1789, 1824 Zirconium Zr 40 Berlin, StockholmMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius elements
1789, 1841 Uranium U 92 Berlin, ParisMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Eugène-Melchoir Péligot elements
1790, 1808 Strontium Sr 38 LondonAdair Crawford, William Cruikshank, Humphry Davy elements
1791-1910 Titanium Ti 22 Creed, Berlin, Stockholm, TroyWilliam Gregor, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Matthew Hunter elements
1791, 1820 Galvanometer Luigi Galvani, Hans Christian Ørsted, Johann Schweigger electromagnetism
1794 - 1843 Yttrium Y 39 Åbo, StockholmJohan Gadolin, Carl Gustaf Mosander elements
1796 Vaccination Edward Jenner immunology
1796 Origin of our solar system Pierre-Simon Laplace astronomy
1796 Comparative anatomy Georges Cuvier, John Hunter comparative anatomy
1797 Catastrophist geology James Hall geology
1797 Chromium Cr 24 ParisLouis Nicolas Vauquelin elements
1798 Population pressure Thomas Robert Malthus theoretical biology
1798 ‘Weighing’ the world John Michell, Henry Cavendish geodesy
1798, 1828 Beryllium Be 004 Paris, BerlinLouis Nicolas Vauquelin, Friedrich Wöhler, Antoine Bussy elements
1799 Humboldt’s voyage Alexander von Humboldt philosophy of science zoology
1799 Electric battery Alessandro Volta electromagnetism
1799 Placebo effect John Haygarth medicine
1800 Wave nature of light Thomas Young physics
1801 Discovery of an asteroid Giuseppe Piazzi, Carl Friedrich Gauss astronomy
1801 Niobium Nb 41 LondonCharles Hatchett elements
1802 Tantalum Ta 73 UppsalaAnders Gustaf Ekeberg elements
1802 - 1879 Incandescent light Humphrey Davy, Thomas Edison physics
1803, 1830, 1867 Vanadium V 23 Mexico City, Stockholm, ManchesterAndrés Manuel del Río, Nils Gabriel Sefström, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Henry Enfield Roscoe elements
1803, 1839 Cerium Ce 58 Berlin, Bastnäs, StockholmMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Wilhelm Hisinger, Carl Gustaf Mosander elements
1803, 1830 Platinum pyrometer Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau, John Frederic Daniell thermometry
1804
Rhodium Palladium Iridium Osmium
LondonWilliam Hyde Wollaston, Smithson Tennant elements
1805 - 1876 Vapor-compression refrigeration Oliver Evans, Jacob Perkins, John Gorrie, Alexander Twining, James Harrison, Ferdinand and Edmond Carré, Carl von Linde thermodynamics
1805 Oruktor Amphibolos Oliver Evans mechanics thermodynamics
1807 Potassium K 019 LondonHumphry Davy elements
1807 Sodium Na 011 LondonHumphry Davy elements
1808 Calcium Ca 020 LondonHumphry Davy elements
1808 Boron B 005 London, ParisHumphry Davy, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Louis Jacques Thénard elements
1808 Atomic theory John Dalton physics
1809 Acquired characteristics Jean-Baptiste Lamarck evolution
1811, 1909 Avogadro constant Amedeo Avogadro, Jean Baptiste Perrin stoichiometry
1811 Iodine I 53 DijonBernard Courtois elements
1812 Mohs scale Friedrich Mohs geology
1813 Chemical nomenclature Jöns Jacob Berzelius chemistry
1814 Spectral lines Joseph von Fraunhofer physics
1814 - 1815 Metronome Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel, Johann Nepomuk Maelzel horology
1815 Fossil sequences William Smith stratigraphy
1815 Prout’s hypothesis William Prout physics
1816 Electrical telegraph Francis Ronalds electromagnetism
1816 Stirling engine Robert Stirling thermodynamics
1817 Kater’s pendulum Christiaan Huygens, Gaspard de Prony, Henry Kater kinematics
1817 Germ layers Heinz Christian Pander embryology
1817, 1821 Lithium Li 003 Stockholm, LondonJohan August Arfwedson, William Thomas Brande elements
1817 Cadmium Cd 48 GöttingenKarl Samuel Leberecht Hermann, Friedrich Stromeyer, Johann Christoff Heinrich Roloff elements
1817 Selenium Se 34 StockholmJöns Jacob Berzelius, Johan Gottlieb Gahn elements
1818 Aethrioscope John Leslie thermometry
1819 Wave optics Augustin-Jean Fresnel, François Arago optics
1820 Electromagnetism Hans Christian Øersted, André-Marie Ampère, Michael Faraday electromagnetism
1821 Electric conductivity Humphry Davy, Henry Cavendish electromagnetism
1821, 1834 Thermoelectric effect Thomas Johann Seebeck, Hans Christian Ørsted electromagnetism
1822 Deciphering hieroglyphics Jean François Champollion linguistics
1822 Difference engine Charles Babbage computer science
1823 Silicon Si 014 StockholmJöns Jacob Berzelius elements
1823 Liquefaction of gases Michael Faraday physics
1825, 1827 Aluminium Al 013 Copenhagen, BerlinHans Christian Ørsted, Friedrich Wöhler elements
1825, 1826 Bromine Br 35 HeidelbergCarl Jacob Löwig, Leopold Gmelin, Antoine Jérôme Balard elements
1825 Benzene Michael Faraday chemistry
1826 Eggs and embryos Karl Ernst von Baer embryology
1827 Ohm’s law Georg Ohm electromagnetism
1828 Synthesis of urea Friedrich Wöhler chemistry
1828 Nicol prism William Nicol optics
1829 Non-Euclidean geometry Nicolai Lobachevsky, János Bolyai, Bernhard Riemann geometry
1829 Thorium Th 90 StockholmMorten Thrane Esmark, Jöns Jacob Berzelius elements
1830 Principles of geology Charles Lyell geology
1831 Faraday’s law of induction Michael Faraday electromagnetism
1831 Electric generator Michael Faraday electromagnetism
1831 Faraday wave Michael Faraday acoustics
1833 “Scientist” William Whewell philosophy of science
1833, 1843 Wheatstone bridge Samuel Hunter Christie, Charles Wheatstone electromagnetism
1834 Cro-Magnons Édouard Lartet, Louis Lartet primatology
1834 Laws of electrolysis Michael Faraday physics
1834 Peltier effect Jean Charles Athanase Peltier electromagnetism
1834 Ion Michael Faraday chemistry
1834 Faraday efficiency Michael Faraday chemistry
1835 Coriolis effect Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis atmospheric_sciences
1836 Faraday cage Michael Faraday electromagnetism
1838 Distance to a star Friedrich Bessel astronomy
1839 Cell theory Matthias Jakob Schleiden, Theodor Schwann, Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier, Hugo von Mohl, Robert Remak, Rudolf Virchow cell biology
1839 Lanthanum La 57 StockholmCarl Gustaf Mosander elements
1839 - 1887 International auxiliary language Joseph Schipfer, Joachim Faiguet de Villeneuve, Jean Pirro, Johann Martin Schleyer, L. L. Zamenhof linguistics
1840 Ice age Louis Agassiz atmospheric sciences
1841 Potentiometer Johann Christian Poggendorff electromagnetism
1841 Allotropy Jöns Jacob Berzelius chemistry
1842 Dinosaur Richard Owen evolution paleontology
1842 Doppler effect Christian Doppler physics
1842 Magnetostriction James Prescott Joule electromagnetism
1842 - 1846 Anesthesia Crawford Long, Horace Wells, William T. G. Morton medicine
1842 Conservation of energy Julius von Mayer, James Prescott Joule thermodynamics
1842 Cyanotype John Herschel chemistry
1843 Sunspot cycle Heinrich Schwabe astronomy
1843 Terbium Tb 65 StockholmCarl Gustaf Mosander elements
1843 Erbium Er 68 StockholmCarl Gustaf Mosander elements
1844 Ruthenium Ru 44 KazanKarl Ernst Claus elements
1845 Spiral galaxies William Parsons astronomy
1845 - 1913 Magneto-optic and electro-optic effects Michael Faraday, John Kerr, Aimé Cotton, Woldemar Voigt, Pieter Zeeman, Henri Mouton, Johannes Stark, Antonino Lo Surdo electromagnetism
1846 Discovery of Neptune John Couch Adams, Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier, Johann Gottfried Galle astronomy
1846 - 1868 Protoplasm Hugo von Mohl, Jan Evangelista Purkyně, Thomas Henry Huxley cell biology
1846 Guncotton Christian Friedrich Schönbein, Rudolf Christian Böttger, F. J. Otto chemistry
1847 Laws of thermodynamics Benjamin Thompson, Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, James Prescott Joule, Rudolf Clausius thermodynamics
1847 Boolean algebra George Boole computer science
1847 Nitroglycerin Ascanio Sobrero chemistry
1847 Stokes drift George Gabriel Stokes fluid dynamics
1848 Kelvin scale William Lord Kelvin thermometry
1851 Foucault’s pendulum Léon Foucault geodesy
1851 Reynolds number George Gabriel Stokes fluid dynamics
1852 - 1854 Ideomotor phenomenon William Benjamin Carpenter, Michael Faraday, James Braid, Michel Eugène Chevreul behavioral science
1852 Joule-Thomson effect James Prescott Joule, William Thomson Lord Kelvin thermodynamics
1854 Cholera and the pump John Snow pathology
1854, 1884 Vibrio cholerae Filippo Pacini, Robert Koch bacteriology
1855 Bunsen burner Robert Bunsen, Peter Desaga chemistry
1855, 1865 Marangoni effect James Thomson, Carlo Marangoni thermodynamics
1856 Neanderthal man Hermann Schaaffhausen primatology
1856 Mauve William Henry Perkin chemistry
1857 Geissler tube Heinrich Geißler electromagnetism
1858 Communities of cells Rudolf Virchow cell biology
1859 Origin of species Charles Darwin evolution
1859 Analytical spectroscopy Robert Bunsen, Gustav Kirchhoff chemistry
1859, 1881 Lead-acid battery Gaston Planté, Camille Alphonse Faure electromagnetism
1859 Wallace line Alfred Russel Wallace oceanography biogeography
1860 Archaeopteryx Richard Owen, Thomas Henry Huxley evolution
1860, 1882 Caesium Cs 55 HeidelbergRobert Bunsen, Gustav Kirchhoff, Carl Setterberg elements
1860 Protist John Hogg protistology
1860 Roots blower Philander Roots, Francis Marion Roots mechanics
1861 Rubidium Rb 37 HeidelbergRobert Bunsen, Gustav Kirchhoff elements
1861 Mapping speech Paul Broca anatomy
1861 - 1862 Thallium Tl 81 London, LilleWilliam Crookes, Claude-Auguste Lamy elements
1861 Batesian mimicry Henry Walter Bates evolution
1862 Celluloid Alexander Parkes materials science
1863 Greenhouse effect John Tyndall atmospheric sciences
1863 Indium In 49 FreibergFerdinand Reich, Hieronymous Theodor Richter elements
1864 Maxwell’s equations James Clerk Maxwell electromagnetism
1865 Regulating the body Claude Bernard metabolism
1865 Benzene ring August Kekulé chemistry
1865 Antiseptic surgery Joseph Lister medicine
1865 Laws of inheritance Gregor Johann Mendel genetics
1867 Dynamite Alfred Nobel chemistry
1868 - 1895 Helium He 002 Guntur, West HampsteadPierre Janssen, Norman Lockyer, Luigi Palmieri, William Ramsay, Per Teodor Cleve, Nils Abraham Langlet elements
1869 Periodic table Dmitri Mendeleev chemistry periodic table
1869 Cathode ray Johann Wilhelm Hittorf electromagnetism
1869 - 1875 Crookes tube William Crookes electromagnetism
1871 Wind tunnel Francis Herbert Wenham aerodynamics
1871 Resistance thermometer Carl Wilhelm Siemens thermometry
1873 Changes of state Johannes Diederik van der Waals chemistry
1873 Crookes radiometer William Crookes fluid dynamics
1873, 1880 Thermionic emission Frederick Guthrie, Thomas Edison electromagnetism
1873 Gibbs free energy Josiah Willard Gibbs thermodynamics
1874, 1904 Crystal diode Karl Ferdinand Braun, Henry Harrison Chase Dunwoody, Greenleaf Whittier Pickard electromagnetism
1874 Rotary vane pump Charles C. Barnes mechanics
1875 Gallium Ga 31 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran elements
1876 Industrial research laboratory Thomas Edison philosophy of science
1876 Telephone Alexander Graham Bell telecommunication
1876 Bacillus anthracis Aloys Pollender, Casimir Davaine, Pierre François Olive Rayer, Robert Koch bacteriology
1876 Chemical potential Josiah Willard Gibbs thermodynamics
1877 Canals on Mars Giovanni Schiaparelli astronomy
1878 Germ theory Louis Pasteur bacteriology
1878 Mitosis Walther Flemming, Edouard Van Beneden, Otto Bütschli, Eduard Strasburger cell biology
1878, 1907 Ytterbium Yb 70 Geneva, ParisJean Charles Galissard de Marignac, Georges Urbain elements
1878 - 1879 Holmium Ho 67 Geneva, UppsalaMarc Delafontaine, Jacques-Louis Soret, Per Teodor Cleve elements
1878 Müllerian mimicry Fritz Müller evolution
1878 Bolometer Samuel Pierpont Langley thermometry
1879 Thulium Tm 69 UppsalaPer Teodor Cleve elements
1879 Scandium Sc 21 UppsalaLars Fredrik Nilson elements
1879 Samarium Sm 62 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran elements
1879 Thermal transpiration Osborne Reynolds, Martin Knudsen fluid dynamics
1879 Stefan-Boltzmann law Josef Stefan, Ludwig Boltzmann thermodynamics
1879 Kelvin wave William Thomson Lord Kelvin oceanography
1880 - 1881 Anthrax vaccine Jean Joseph Henri Toussaint, Louis Pasteur immunology
1880, 1881 Piezoelectricity Pierre Curie, Jacques Curie, Gabriel Lippmann electromagnetism
1880 Gadolinium Gd 64 GenevaJean Charles Galissard de Marignac elements
1881 Streptococcus pneumoniae George Miller Sternberg, Louis Pasteur bacteriology
1882 Cellular immunity Élie Metchnikoff immunology
1882 Mycobacterium tuberculosis Benjamin Marten, Robert Koch bacteriology
1884 Peanut butter Marcellus Gilmore Edson food science
1884 Gram staining Hans Christian Gram bacteriology
1885 Mountain formation Eduard Suess geophysics
1885 Rabies vaccine Pierre Paul Émile Roux, Louis Pasteur immunology
1885 Praseodymium Pr 59 ViennaCarl Auer von Welsbach elements
1885 Neodymium Nd 60 ViennaCarl Auer von Welsbach elements
1885 Automobile Karl Benz mechanics thermodynamics
1886 Fluorine F 009 ParisHenri Moissan elements
1886 Dysprosium Dy 66 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran elements
1886 Germanium Ge 32 FreibergClemens Winkler elements
1887 Michelson-Morley experiment Albert A. Michelson, Edward W. Morley physics
1888 Nitrogen fixation Hermann Hellriegel botany
1888 - 1927 Cinematography Louis Le Prince, Thomas Edison, Auguste and Louis Lumière optics
1888 Ampere balance William Thomson, Lord Kelvin electromagnetism
1889 Nervous system Camillo Golgi, Santiago Ramón y Cajal neuroscience
1889 Measuring individuals Francis Galton biometrics
1889 Length contraction George Francis FitzGerald electromagnetism
1889 Aggressive mimicry George and Elizabeth Peckham evolution
1889 Paschen’s law Friedrich Paschen electromagnetism
1890 Antitoxins Emil Adolf von Behring, Shibasaburō Kitasato immunology
1890 Aposematism Alfred Russel Wallace, Edward Bagnall evolution
1890 - 1901 Europium Eu 63 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Eugène-Anatole Demarçay elements
1890 Coherer Edouard Branly electromagnetism
1891 Java man Eugène Dubois primatology
1893 Diesel engine Rudolf Diesel thermodynamics
1893 Anthropometry Alphonse Bertillon biometrics
1893 Galalith Auguste Trillat materials science
1894 Enzyme specificity Emil Adolf Hermann Fischer chemistry
1894 Argon Ar 018 LondonJohn William Strutt Lord Rayleigh, William Ramsay elements
1894 Nansen bottle Fridtjof Nansen, Shale Niskin oceanography
1895 X-rays Wilhelm Röntgen electromagnetism
1895 Libido Sigmund Freud psychology
1895 Curie’s law Pierre Curie metrology
1895 Antivenom Albert Calmette immunology
1895 Speleology Édouard-Alfred Martel speleology
1896 Radioactivity Henri Becquerel, Marie Curie, Pierre Curie, Ernest Rutherford, Frederick Soddy physics
1896 Radio Guglielmo Marconi telecommunication
1896 Preventing cholera Ernest Hanbury Hankin medicine
1896, 1902 Magnetic detector Ernest Rutherford, Guglielmo Marconi electromagnetism
1896 Diode bridge Karol Pollak electromagnetism
1896 Arrhenius equation Svante Arrhenius atmospheric sciences
1897 Aspirin Arthur Eichengrün, Felix Hoffmann pharmacology
1897 Electron Joseph John Thomson particle physics
1897 Malarial parasite Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, Patrick Manson, Ronald Ross parasitology
1897 Townsend discharge John Sealy Townsend physics
1898 Viruses Martinus Beijerinck virology
1898 Krypton Kr 36 LondonWilliam Ramsay, Morris Travers elements
1898 Neon Ne 010 LondonWilliam Ramsay, Morris Travers elements
1898 Xenon Xe 54 LondonWilliam Ramsay, Morris Travers elements
1898 Polonium Po 84 ParisMarie Curie, Pierre Curie elements
1898 Radium Ra 88 ParisMarie Curie, Pierre Curie elements
1899 - 1910 Radon Rn 86 Paris, Montreal, Halle, LondonMarie Curie, Pierre Curie, Robert Bowie Owens, Ernest Rutherford, Friedrich Ernst Dorn, André-Louis Debierne, William Ramsay, Robert Whytlaw-Gray elements
1899, 1902 Actinium Ac 89 Paris, BrunswickAndré-Louis Debierne, Friedrich Oskar Giesel elements
1899 Loading coil Oliver Heaviside, George Ashley Campbell, Mihajlo Pupin telecommunication
1900 Planck constant Max Planck quantum mechanics
1900 Quanta Max Planck, Albert Einstein quantum mechanics
1900 Gamma ray Paul Ulrich Villard physics
1901 Blood groups Karl Landsteiner medicine
1901 Heterodyne Reginald Fessenden electromagnetism
1901 Disappearing-filament pyrometer Ferdinand Kurlbaum, Ludwig Holborn, Harmon Northrup Morse thermometry
1902 Boveri-Sutton chromosome theory Theodor Boveri, Walter Sutton genetics
1902 Hot wire barretter Reginald Fessenden electromagnetism
1902 Stratosphere Richard Assmann, Léon Teisserenc de Bort atmospheric sciences
1902 Ekman transport Vagn Walfrid Ekman, Fridtjof Nansen oceanography
1903 Chaos theory Henri Poincaré mathematics
1903 Airplane Wilbur Wright, Orville Wright aerodynamics
1903 Electrolytic detector Reginald Fessenden electromagnetism
1903 Spinthariscope William Crookes physics
1904 Intelligence testing Alfred Binet psychometrics
1904 Conditioned reflexes Ivan Pavlov psychology
1904 Conditioned reflexes Hendrik Lorentz, Henri Poincaré mathematics
1904 Genetic linkage William Bateson, Edith Rebecca Saunders, Reginald Punnett genetics
1904 Telemobiloscope Christian Hülsmeyer electromagnetism
1904 Alexanderson alternator Ernst Alexanderson electromagnetism
1904 Boundary layer Ludwig Prandtl fluid dynamics
1904 Fleming valve John Ambrose Fleming electromagnetism
1905 Special relativity Albert Einstein physics
1905 Phased array Karl Ferdinand Braun electromagnetism
1906 Vitamins Frederick Gowland Hopkins food science
1906 Earth interior Richard Dixon Oldham, Andrija Mohorovičić geophysics
1906 AM broadcasting Reginald Fessenden telecommunication
1906 - 1912 Triode Lee de Forest, Irving Langmuir electromagnetism
1907 Dating rocks Bertram Boltwood geology
1907 Bakelite Leo Baekeland materials science
1907 Lutetium Lu 71 Paris, Vienna, DurhamGeorges Urbain, Carl Auer von Welsbach, Charles James elements
1907 Magnetic domain Pierre Weiss electromagnetism
1908 Brownian motion Robert Brown, Ludwig Boltzmann, Albert Einstein, Jean Baptiste Perrin physics
1908 Umami Kikunae Ikeda food science
1908, 1935 Sulfanilamide Paul Gelmo, Gerhard Domagk pharmacology
1908, 1925 Rhenium Re 75 London, BerlinMasataka Ogawa, Walter Noddack, Ida Tacke, Otto Berg elements
1908 - 1958 Van Allen belts Kristian Birkeland, Carl Størmer, James Van Allen electromagnetism
1908 Birkeland current Kristian Birkeland electromagnetism
1909 Synthesis of ammonia Fritz Haber chemistry
1909 Inborn errors of metabolism Archibald Garrod genetics
1909 Burgess shale Charles Doolittle Walcott paleontology
1909 Mutationism Hugo de Vries evolution
1910 Chemotherapy Paul Ehrlich pharmacology
1910 Genes Thomas Hunt Morgan, Alfred Henry Sturtevant, Calvin Bridges, Hermann Joseph Muller genetics
1911 Superconductivity Heike Kamerlingh Onnes physics
1911 Cosmic rays Victor Francis Hess physics
1911 Weiss magneton Pierre Weiss electromagnetism
1911 Atomic number Antonius van den Broek chemistry
1911 - 1920 Sagnac effect Max von Laue, Georges Sagnac physics
1912 Continental drift Alfred Lothar Wegener geophysics
1912 Sonar Reginald Fessenden acoustics
1912 Scoville scale Wilbur Scoville food science
1913 Atom Ernest Rutherford, Niels Bohr physics
1913 Radioactive displacement law Frederick Soddy, Kazimierz Fajans physics
1913 - 1918 Protactinium Pa 91 Karlsruhe, Glasgow, BerlinOswald Helmuth Göhring, Georg von Hevesy, John Arnold Cranston, Frederick Soddy, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner elements
1913 Atomic battery Henry Moseley electromagnetism
1913 Tesla turbine Nikola Tesla fluid dynamics
1913 Bohr magneton Niels Bohr electromagnetism
1913 - 1930 Vitamin discoveries Elmer McCollum, Marguerite Davis, Lafayette Mendel, Thomas Burr Osborne, Christiaan Eijkman, Edward Mellanby, Adolf Windaus, Herbert McLean Evans, Katharine Bishop, Carl Dam, George Whipple, George Richards Minot, William Murphy, Albert Szent-Györgyi food science
1914 Neurotransmitters Henry Hallett Dale, George Barger, Otto Loewi neuroscience
1914 Climate cycles Milutin Milanković atmospheric_sciences
1914 Glossmeter Leonard R. Ingersoll optics
1915 General relativity Albert Einstein physics
1915, 1917 Bacteriophage Frederick Twort, Félix d’Herelle virology
1915 Parson magneton Alfred Lauck Parson electromagnetism
1916 Chemical bond Gilbert N. Lewis physics
1916 Schwartzchild radius Karl Schwarzschild physics
1917 - 1960 Stimulated emission Albert Einstein, Charles Hard Townes, James P. Gordon, Theodore Harold Maiman physics
1918 The universe Henrietta Swan Leavitt, Harlow Shapley, Edwin Hubble, Walter Baade astronomy
1918 Neo-Darwinism Ronald Fisher, John Burdon Sanderson Haldane, Sewall Wright, Theodosius Dobzhansky evolution
1918 Noether’s theorem Emmy Noether physics
1918, 1975 Fractal dimension Felix Hausdorff, Benoit Mandelbrot mathematics
1919 Barkhausen effect Heinrich Barkhausen electromagnetism
1920 Weather forecasting Vilhelm Bjerknes, Jacob Bjerknes atmospheric sciences
1920 Stellar evolution Arthur Eddington, Hans Bethe, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, Ejnar Hertzsprung, Henry Norris Russell astronomy
1920 Ferroelectricity Joseph Valasek electromagnetism
1921 Insulin Frederick Banting, Charles Herbert Best medicine
1921 Tuberculosis vaccine Albert Calmette, Camille Guérin immunology
1922 Eel metamorphosis Johannes Schmidt ichthyology
1922 Isotope Francis William Aston, Frederick Soddy chemistry
1922, 1926 Absorption refrigerator Baltzar von Platen, Carl Munters, Albert Einstein, Leo Szilard thermodynamics
1922 Coefficient of relationship Sewall Wright sociobiology
1923 Crop diversity Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov ecology
1923 Hafnium Hf 72 CopenhagenDirk Coster, Georg von Hevesy elements
1923 Compton scattering Arthur Holly Compton physics
1924 Child development Jean Piaget psychology
1924 - 1928 Plasma Irving Langmuir physics
1925 Tuang child Raymond Dart primatology
1925 Wave-particle duality Werner Heisenberg, Louis de Broglie, Erwin Schrödinger quantum mechanics
1925 Bose-Einstein condensate Satyendra Nath Bose, Albert Einstein physics
1925, 1926 Pauli exclusion principle/Exchange interaction Wolfgang Pauli, Werner Heisenberg, Paul Dirac particle physics
1925, 1962 Prokaryote and eukaryote Édouard Chatton, Roger Stanier, C. B. van Niel cell biology
1926 Schrödinger equation Erwin Schrödinger quantum mechanics
1927 Uncertainty principle Werner Heisenberg quantum mechanics
1927 Langmuir circulation Irving Langmuir oceanography
1928 Penicillin Alexander Fleming pharmacology
1928 Dirac equation Paul Dirac quantum mechanics
1928 - 1929 Plasma oscillation Irving Langmuir, Lewi Tonks physics
1928 Transformation Frederick Griffith genetics
1929 Geomagnetic reversals Motonori Matuyama plate tectonics
1929 Expanding universe Georges Lemaître, Edwin Hubble astronomy
1930 Magnon Felix Bloch electromagnetism
1930 Zitterbewegung Erwin Schrödinger quantum mechanics
1930 - 2014 Quasiparticles Felix Bloch, Yakov Frenkel, Paul Dirac, Igor Tamm, Lev Landau, Ettore Majorana, Lars Onsager, Kirill Tolpygo, David Pines, David Bohm, Leon Cooper, Tony Skyrme, Robert B. Laughlin, Horst Ludwig Störmer, Daniel Tsui, Shin'ichirō Tomonaga, Joaquin Mazdak Luttinger, Jeroen van den Brink, Daniel I. Khomskii, George Sawatzky quantum mechanics
1931 Incompleteness theorems Kurt Gödel logic
1931 White dwarfs Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar astronomy
1931 Deuterium Harold Urey, George M. Murphy, Ferdinand Brickwedde chemistry
1932 Neutron James Chadwick particle physics
1932 Antimatter Paul Dirac, Carl David Anderson particle physics
1932 Phonon Igor Tamm particle physics
1932 - 1951 Positronium Carl David Anderson, Stjepan Mohorovičić, Martin Deutsch particle physics
1933 Meissner effect Walther Meissner, Robert Ochsenfeld electromagnetism
1933 Radio astronomy Karl Guthe Jansky astronomy
1933 Neutron star Walter Baade, Fritz Zwicky astrophysics
1934 Coandă effect Henri Coandă aerodynamics
1934 Cherenkov radiation Pavel Cherenkov, Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov, Igor Tamm, Pavel Frank physics
1934, 1947 Meson Hideki Yukawa, Cecil Powell, César Lattes, Giuseppe Occhialini particle physics
1935 Nylon Wallace Carothers materials science
1935 Nylon Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen entomology
1935 Geiger counter John Sealy Townsend, Hans Geiger, Walther Müller physics
1935 Majorana fermion Ettore Majorana particle physics
1935 Induced radioactivity Irène Joliot-Curie, Frédéric Joliot-Curie physics
1936 Inner core Inge Lehmann geophysics
1936 Muon Carl David Anderson, Seth Neddermeyer particle physics
1937 Citric-acid cycle Hans Adolf Krebs metabolism
1937 Technetium Tc 43 PalermoEmilio Segrè, Carlo Perrier elements
1937 Superfluidity Pyotr Kapitsa, John F. Allen, Don Misener physics
1937 Goldschmidt classification Victor Goldschmidt geophysics
1938 Radical behaviorism B. F. Skinner psychology
1938 Coelacanth Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer, J. L. B. Smith ichthyology
1938, 1943 Autism Hans Asperger, Leo Kanner psychiatry
1939 DDT Paul Hermann Müller chemistry
1939 Francium Fr 87 ParisMarguerite Perey elements
1939 Rossby wave Carl-Gustaf Rossby oceanography
1940 Bat echolocation Donald Griffin, Robert Galambos zoology
1940 Astatine At 85 BerkeleyDale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, Emilio Segrè elements
1940 Neptunium Np 93 BerkeleyEdwin McMillan, Philip Abelson elements
1940 Plutonium Pu 94 BerkeleyGlenn T. Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, Joseph W. Kennedy, Edwin McMillan elements
1942 Nuclear fission Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassmann, Lise Meitner, Otto Robert Frisch, Rudolf Peierls, Enrico Fermi physics
1942 - 1946 Fat Man - Manhattan Project Niels Bohr, James Chadwick, Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, Richard Feynman, Otto Robert Frisch, Willard Libby, John von Neumann
1942 Frequency-hopping Hedy Lamarr, George Antheil telecommunication
1942 Alfvén wave Hannes Alfvén electromagnetism
1943 Bacterial genes Salvador Luria, Max Delbrück genetics
1943 Neural networks Warren Sturgis McCulloch, Walter Pitts computer science
1944 Game theory John von Neumann, Oskar Morgenstern game theory
1944 - 1960 The pill Russell Earl Marker, George Rosenkranz, Carl Djerassi, Luis E. Miramontes, Frank B. Colton, Margaret Sanger, Katharine McCormick, Gregory Pincus, Min Chueh Chang, John Rock sociology pharmacology
1944 Curium Cm 96 Berkeley, ChicagoGlenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, Albert Ghiorso elements
1944 Americium Am 95 Berkeley, ChicagoGlenn T. Seaborg, Leon O. Morgan, Ralph A. James, Albert Ghiorso elements
1944 Molecular genetics Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, Maclyn McCarty genetics
1945 Dancing bees Karl von Frisch entomology
1945 Promethium Pm 61 Oak RidgeCharles D. Coryell, Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin elements
1945 Structure of penicillin Dorothy Hodgkin pharmacology
1946 Computer Charles Babbage, Alan Turing, John von Neumann computer science
1946 Photosynthesis Melvin Calvin botany
1946 Dynamo theory Walter M. Elsasser electromagnetism geophysics
1946 ENIAC John Grist Brainerd, John Mauchly, J. Presper Eckert computer science
1947 Radiocarbon dating Willard Frank Libby physics
1947 Slime-mold bodies John Tyler Bonner botany
1947 Transistor William Shockley, Walter Houser Brattain, John Bardeen electromagnetism
1947 Holography Dennis Gabor optics
1947 Prosopagnosia Joachim Bodamer anatomy
1948 Quantum electrodynamics Hans Bethe, Julian Schwinger, Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Freeman Dyson, Richard Feynman quantum mechanics
1948 Information theory Claude Shannon telecommunication
1948 Casimir effect Hendrik Casimir, Dirk Polder quantum mechanics
1948 Feynman diagram Richard Feynman quantum mechanics
1948 Cellular automaton John von Neumann, Stanislaw Ulam computer science
1949 Immune tolerance Peter Medawar, Frank Macfarlane Burnet immunology
1949 Sickle-cell disease Linus Pauling molecular biology
1949 Berkelium Bk 97 BerkeleyGlenn T. Seaborg, Albert Ghiorso, Stanley Gerald Thompson elements
1950 Oort cloud Jan Oort cosmology
1950 Californium Cf 98 BerkeleyStanley Gerald Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso, Glenn T. Seaborg elements
1950 Turing test Alan Turing philosophy of science
1951 Jumping genes Barbara McClintock genetics
1951 Chemical oscillations Boris Pavlovich Belousov, Anatoly Zhabotinsky chemistry
1952 Nerve impulses Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Andrew Huxley neuroscience
1952 Nerve growth Rita Levi-Montalcini, Stanley Cohen neuroscience
1952 Einsteinium Es 99 Berkeley, Argonne, Los AlamosAlbert Ghiorso and co-workers at Berkeley, Argonne, and Los Alamos elements
1952 Fermium Fm 100 Berkeley, Argonne, Los AlamosAlbert Ghiorso and co-workers at Berkeley, Argonne, and Los Alamos elements
1952 Turing pattern Alan Turing theoretical biology
1952 - 1991 Fullerene L. V. Radushkevich, V. M. Lukyanovich, Morinobu Endo, Sumio Iijima, Harold Kroto, James R. Heath, Robert Curl, Richard Smalley chemistry
1953 CorningWare S. Donald Stookey materials science
1953 Abiogenesis Stanley Miller, Harold Urey evolution
1953 Rapid-eye-movement sleep Nathaniel Kleitman, Eugene Aserinsky, William C. Dement behavioral science
1953 DNA structure Francis Crick, James Watson genetics
1955 Polio vaccine John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, Frederick Chapman Robbins, Jonas Salk, Albert Sabin immunology
1955 Mendelevium Md 101 BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Bernard G. Harvey, Gregory R. Choppin, Stanley Gerald Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg elements
1956 Parity violation Tsung-Dao Lee, Chen-Ning Yang physics
1956 Visual phototransduction George Wald neuroscience
1956 Neutrino Wolfgang Pauli, Frederick Reines, Clyde Cowan particle physics
1956 Cooper pair Leon Cooper physics
1957 BCS theory John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, John Robert Schrieffer physics
1958 Nobelium No 102 Dubna, BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, John R. Walton, Glenn T. Seaborg, E. D. Donets, V. A. Shchegolev, V. A. Ermakov elements
1958 Mössbauer effect Rudolf Mössbauer physics
1958 - 1959 Protein crystallography John Kendrew, Max Perutz chemistry
1959 Pheromone Adolf Butenandt biology
1959 Paranthropus boisei Mary Leakey, Louis Leakey primatology
1960 - 1975 Chimpanzees and humans Jane Goodall primatology
1960 Muonium Vernon W. Hughes particle physics
1961 - 1971 Lawrencium Lr 103 Berkeley, DubnaAlbert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon Larsh, Robert M. Latimer, Georgy Flerov, I. Zvara, G. M. Ter-Akopian, V. A. Shchegolev, V. L. Mikheev elements
1961 Flexoelectricity Kirill Tolpygo electromagnetism
1961 Keeling curve Charles David Keeling atmospheric sciences
1961 Hayflick limit Leonard Hayflick cell biology
1962 Petri net Carl Adam Petri computer science
1962 - 1964 Quasar John Bolton, Maarten Schmidt, Edwin Salpeter, Yakov Zeldovich astrophysics
1963 Mpemba effect Erasto Batholomeo Mpemba, Denis G. Osborne thermodynamics
1964 Quark Murray Gell-Mann, George Zweig particle physics
1964 CP violation James Cronin, Val Fitch physics
1964 Altruism W. D. Hamilton sociobiology
1964 Kevlar Stephanie Kwolek materials science
1964 Rectenna William C. Brown electromagnetism
1967 Pulsar Jocelyn Bell Burnell astrophysics
1967 - 2016 LIGO Richard A. Isaacson, Rainer Weiss, Kip Thorne, Barry C. Barish astrophysics
1969 Rutherfordium Rf 104 BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Matti Nurmia, James Andrew Harris, Kari Eskola, Pirkko Eskola elements
1970 Dubnium Db 105 Dubna, BerkeleyGeorgy Flyorov, V. A. Druin, A. G. Demin, Yu. V. Lobanov, Nikolai Konstantinovich Skobelev, G. N. Akap’ev, B. V. Fefilov, I. V. Kolesov, K. A. Gavrilov, Yu. P. Kharitonov, L. P. Chelnokov, Albert Ghiorso, Matti Nurmia, James Andrew Harris, Kari Eskola, Pirkko Eskola elements
1970 Conway’s Game of Life John Horton Conway computer science
1970 Reverse transcriptase Howard Temin, David Baltimore genetics
1971 Plasma cosmology Hannes Alfvén, Oskar Klein cosmology
1971 Memristor Leon Chua electromagnetism
1971 - 1977 Tau Yung-su Tsai, Martin Lewis Perl particle physics
1971-1977 Telomere Alexey Olovnikov, Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol W. Greider, Joseph G. Gall, Jack W. Szostak genetics
1974 Seaborgium Sg 106 BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Joachim Michael Nitschke, José R. Alonso, Carol T. Alonso, Matti Nurmia, Glenn T. Seaborg, E. Kenneth Hulet, Ronald W. Lougheed elements
1974 Hawking radiation Stephen Hawking thermodynamics
1975 Sociobiology E. O. Wilson sociobiology
1975 Fractal Benoit Mandelbrot mathematics
1976 - 1991 Public-key cryptography Whitfield Diffie, Martin Hellman, Ralph Merkle, Phil Zimmermann cryptography
1978 Global Positioning System Roger L. Easton, Ivan A. Getting, Bradford Parkinson geodesy
1981 Bohrium Bh 107 DarmstadtGottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, Sigurd Hofmann, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Willibrord Reisdorf, Karl-Heinz Schmidt, J. R. H. Schneider, W. F. W. Schneider, Christoph-Clemens Sahm, B. Thuma elements
1982 Meitnerium Mt 109 DarmstadtGottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, Sigurd Hofmann, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Klaus Poppensieker, Willibrord Reisdorf, Karl-Heinz Schmidt, K. Schneider, Christoph-Clemens Sahm, Detlef Vermeulen elements
1984 Hassium Hs 108 DarmstadtGottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Sigurd Hofmann, Fritz Peter Heßberger, J. Keller, Klaus Poppensieker, Willibrord Reisdorf, Karl-Heinz Schmidt, H.-J. Schött, Matti Leino, R. Hingmann elements
1986 Artificial life Christopher Langton computer science
1992 Magnetar Robert Duncan, Christopher Thompson, Chryssa Kouveliotou astrophysics
1994 Darmstadtium Ds 110 DarmstadtSigurd Hofmann, Gottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Fritz Peter Heßberger, H. J. Schött, Victor Ninov elements
1994 Roentgenium Rg 111 DarmstadtSigurd Hofmann, Victor Ninov, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Gottfried Münzenberg, H. J. Schött elements
1996 Copernicium Cn 112 DarmstadtSigurd Hofmann, Victor Ninov, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Gottfried Münzenberg, H. J. Schött elements
1999 - 2007 Flerovium Fl 114 DubnaYuri Oganessian, Alexander Vladimirovich Yeremin, Andre Georgievich Popeko, Sergey L. Bogomolov, German Vladimirovich Buklanov, M. L. Chelnokov, Victor Ivanovich Chepigin, Boris N. Gikal, Vladimir A. Gorshkov, Georgy G. Gulbekian, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Anatoly Petrovich Kabachenko, Anton Yurievich Lavrentiev, Oleg Nikolaevich Malyshev, Jozef Rohach, Roman Nikolaevich Sagaidak, Sigurd Hofmann, S. Saro, G. Giardina, Kosuke Morita elements
1999 Three-domain system Carl Woese, George E. Fox cell biology
2000 Livermorium Lv 116 DubnaYuri Oganessian, V. K. Utyonkov, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, G. G. Gulbekian, Sergey L. Bogomolov, B. N. Gikal, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, O. V. Ivanov, G. V. Buklanov, K. Subotic, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Ken J. Moody, John F. Wild, Nancy J. Stoyer, Mark A. Stoyer, Ronald W. Lougheed, C. A. Laue, Ye. A. Karelin, A. N. Tatarinov elements
2003 Fermionic condensate Deborah Jin, Rudolf Grimm, Wolfgang Ketterle physics
2004 Moscovium Mc 115 DubnaYuri Oganessian, V. K. Utyonkoy, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, G. G. Gulbekian, Sergey L. Bogomolov, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, A. A. Voinov, G. V. Buklanov, K. Subotic, V. I. Zagrebaev, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Joshua B. Patin, Ken J. Moody, John F. Wild, Mark A. Stoyer, Nancy J. Stoyer, Dawn A. Shaughnessy, Jacqueline M. Kenneally, Ronald W. Lougheed elements
2006 Oganesson Og 118 DubnaYuri Oganessian, V. K. Utyonkov, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, O. V. Ivanov, A. A. Voinov, K. Subotic, V. I. Zagrebaev, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Ken J. Moody, John F. Wild, Mark A. Stoyer, Nancy J. Stoyer, C. A. Laue, Dawn A. Shaughnessy, Joshua B. Patin, Ronald W. Lougheed elements
2009 Tennessine Ts 117 DubnaYuri Oganessian, F. Sh. Abdullin, P. D. Bailey, D. E. Benker, M. E. Bennett, S. N. Dmitriev, J. G. Ezold, Joseph H. Hamilton, R. A. Henderson, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Yu. V. Lobanov, A. N. Mezentsev, Ken J. Moody, S. L. Nelson, A. N. Polyakov, C. E. Porter, A. V. Ramayya, F. D. Riley, James B. Roberto, M. A. Ryabinin, K. P. Rykaczewski, R. N. Sagaidak, Dawn A. Shaughnessy, I. V. Shirokovsky, Mark A. Stoyer, V. G. Subbotin, R. Sudowe, A. M. Sukhov, Yu. S. Tsyganov, V. K. Utyonkov, A. A. Voinov, G. K. Vostokin, P. A. Wilk elements
2012 Nihonium Nh 113 WakoKosuke Morita, Kouji Morimoto, Daiya Kaji, Takahiro Akiyama, Shin-ichi Goto, Hiromitsu Haba, Eiji Ideguchi, Kenji Katori, Hiriyuki Koura, Hidetoshi Kikunaga, Hisaaki Kudo, Testuya Ohnishi, Akira Ozawa, Nozomi Sato, Toshimi Suda, Keisuke Sueki, Fuyuki Tokanai, Takayuki Yamaguchi, Akira Yoneda, Atsushi Yoshida elements
2013 Blitzar Heino Falcke, Luciano Rezzolla astrophysics
2017 Time crystal Frank Wilczek, Krzysztof Sacha, Norman Yao, Christopher Monroe, Mikhail Lukin physics
2018 Shɑrpεn Tom Sharp linguistics
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