Appendages of the mouth are crammed into place. For a grasshopper, the labrum, forming the roof of the mouth or upper lip, and the labium, the floor or lower lip, are each fused appendage pairs. Two mandibles open outward and meet in the middle. Two maxillae, with their pedipalps, taste and manipulate food. The salivary duct opens in the back of the oral cavity where the hypopharynx, like a tongue, pushes food into the esophagus. These parts work together for cutting, chewing, crushing, piercing and sucking, tearing, shredding, siphoning, sponging, filtering, and swallowing. The awkwardness of mouthparts is not why arthropods don’t vocalize. That’s because any lungs are passive and open to a hole in the abdomen. They are like gears of a macabre machine made of reused parts adapted to their current use.