|John Sealy Townsend physics|
- In Geissler and Crookes tubes,
- interactions between cathode rays and gas
- were more complex than at first appeared.
- In Geissler tubes,
- atoms of gas were not merely electrically excited
- to where they emited photons.
- In Crookes tubes
- not all electrons zooming toward the anode
- originated at the cathode.
- Townsend irradiated a cathode with X-rays
- and found the current decreased when the anode was closer
- and increased when the vacuum was lower.
- Turns out electrons freed by collisons
- were colliding with gas atoms
- and freeing more electrons.
- Turns out ions having lost electrons
- were zooming toward the cathode and colliding
- to free more electrons and create more ions.
- For some
- the effect
- causes itself.
- Audion tubes
- magnify the radio signal.
- Geiger-Müller tubes
- magnify the ionizing particle.
- Television news
- magnifies the disaster.
- Attention narrows the focus
- and magnifies the view.
- A single clump of snow
- falls from a pine limb.