|Thomas Hunt Morgan, Nettie Maria Stevens, Alfred Henry Sturtevant, Calvin Bridges, Hermann Joseph Muller genetics
Thomas Hunt Morgan asserted that heredity factors, as Gregor Mendel has said, are not always independent of one another, but that some genes are dominant, some recessive, and genes that remain together are more likely to come from the same chromosome. Morgan also found the first gene responsible for a defect, the white eyes in a mutant fruit fly in his laboratory at Columbia University where his students made great advances. Nettie Maria Stevens was the first to link differences in chromosomes to a difference in attributes. She studied chromosomal basis for gender in fruit flies and was the one to introduce the fruit fly into Morgan’s lab. Alfred Henry Sturtevant constructed the first genetic map of a chromosome by breeding many flies with different features. Nettie Stevens and Calvin Bridges proved that chromosomes contained the genes responsible for heredity. Hermann Joseph Muller discovered that X-rays could cause mutations that were useful for studying genes.
Some among the lowly fruit flies just want to have fun. Some, being more in the family way, want to lay eggs in a warm damp piece of fruit. Knowing that one will die in captivity one yearns to be free, or at least to mate frequently.
Family is an analog
of society. A barber once told me a correlation existed between heart disease and attached ear lobes. In my family ear lobes hang free, so I was inclined to believed him. Over the years, my preference for ear lobes like ours has grown even though I know it’s silly and probably dumb. What if I were hiring and the best candidate had attached ear lobes? What if my child were to love someone with attached ear lobes? Rather than admit it, I would secretly feel the tragedy of ear lobes. Looking for ear lobe attachments can become an obsession. It’s too easy to become convinced of our prejudices, but it’s dangerous to act on them. We can improve our lives but not each other. What starts out as love can end up as brutality. Why is it so hard to love our brothers and sisters?