|Copenhagen—Dirk Coster, Georg von Hevesy elements|
- Dmitri Mendeleev predicted
- a heavier analog of titanium and zirconium.
- Henry Moseley predicted
- an element between 71 and 73.
- Georg Urbain said he found it and named it celtium,
- but his work didn’t satisfy
- either chemists or physicists.
- Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadskij
- and Konstantin Avtonomovich Nenadkevich
- probably found it but wars intervened
- before they published their report.
- Niels Bohr, Charles R. Bury, and others
- said it should resemble zirconium.
- So Dirk Coster and Georg von Hevesy in Copenhagen
- found it in zirconium ores from Norway
- using X-ray spectroscopic analysis
- and named it after the Latin for Copenhagen.
Atomic number 72
- Most hafnium is used in control rods
- for nuclear power plants.
- Small amounts are used as gate insulators
- in integrated circuits,
- as oxygen and nitrogen scavengers
- in fluorescent and incandescent lamps,
- and to strengthen protective oxide layers
- of nickel-based alloys.
Very bad science
- Very bad science shows
- hafnium-178m2 is more dangerous than TNT.
- It shows hafnium could be used
- to trigger nuclear bombs.
- It shows that hafnium can increase the expense
- of plasma cutting tools for the garage mechanic,
- and provide cathode-ray guns for the masses
- that exceed the destructive potential
- of automobiles and the second amendment combined.