1890 Antitoxins

The book of science

Tom Sharp

Emil von Behring, Shibasaburō Kitasato immunology


Humoral theory


Serum is the liquid in blood that rises to the top of a test tube when left overnight, leaving blood cells and clotting proteins settled at the bottom. Paraclete is a word from the Greek for the Holy Spirit, but more generally means mediator or advocate.

Humoral theory is now discredited; cells produce antitoxins and perform other tasks in protecting animals from disease. Serum therapy was used to successfully fight diphtheria and tetanus, and Kitasato later developed an antitoxin for anthrax, but if you search for serum therapy today in wikipedia you get the article on vaccination.

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