If, by the term “color,” we mean a combined set of different frequencies of light,
then we are talking about physics.
But if we mean a combined sense of degrees of red, blue, and green,
then we are talking about perception.
Newton’s experiment was the first to pry physics from perception,
and Nicol’s prism was the first to provide plane polarized light.
See also in The book of science:
Readings in wikipedia: