|Oliver Evans, Jacob Perkins, John Gorrie, Alexander Twining, James Harrison, Ferdinand and Edmond Carré, Carl von Linde thermodynamics|
Oliver Evans described the essential components of a closed vapor-compression refrigeration cycle in 1805. * how a piston vacuum pump can reduce the boiling point of water or ether so that its cooling freezes ice how the pump’s compression stroke and a condenser can release heat before starting the cycle over. * Evans’ friend Jacob Perkins subsequently built the first working vapor-compression refrigeration system in 1834. * John Gorrie and Alexander Twining built prototypes, but their devices weren’t commercially successful. * James Harrison built the first successful ice-making machine using vapor compression in Australia in 1854. * Ferdinand Carré and his brother Edmond invented the ammonia-water absorption refrigerator in 1858. Their ice-making machine was based on Harrison’s design with a cooling coil, compressor, and condenser. * And in 1876, Carl von Linde added an expansion valve, also known as the Joule-Thomson orifice, after the condenser, further cooling the gas before it enters the cooling coils.
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Sunlight, ATP. Citric acid, ATP. Liquify, vaporize. Condense, expand. Inhale, exhale. Carbon cycle Oxygen cycle Hydrogen cycle Water cycle Iron cycle Citric acid cycle Lytic cycle Lysogenic cycle Cell cycle Urea cycle Lunar cycle Solar cycle Climate cycle Cycle of the seasons Hampson-Linde cycle