Section of the periodic table

Elements
of science

8700 BCE - 2016

Tom Sharp


Periodic table of the elements

Group: 1 2   3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Period  
1 1
H

Periodic Table of the Elements
Each element links to the page
in The book of science about the element.

2
He
2 3
Li
4
Be


5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3 11
Na
12
Mg


13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4 19
K
20
Ca

21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5 37
Rb
38
Sr

39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6 55
Cs
56
Ba
* 71
Lu
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7 87
Fr
88
Ra
** 103
Lr
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
 
* Lanthanides 57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
 
** Actinides 89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
 

Color key to chemical series

Alkali metal Alkaline earth Lanthanide Actinide Transition metal
Post-transition metal Metalloid Nonmetal Halogen Noble gas

Color key to atomic numbers and element symbols
These show the states of the element at a temperature of 0 °C and a pressure of 1 atmosphere.


Elements by year of discovery

Year Poems and
Commentary
Location—
Scientists
8700 BCE Copper Cu 29 Middle East
6400 BCE Lead Pb 82 Çatalhöyük
4600 BCE Gold Au 79 Varna Necropolis
4000 BCE Silver Ag 47 Asia Minor
4000 BCE Carbon C 006 China, India, Egypt, Sumeria
3200 BCE Iron Fe 26 Gerzeh
3100 BCE Antimony Sb 51 Egypt
3000 BCE Tin Sn 50 Mesopotamia, Balkans
2500 BCE Arsenic As 33 Near East
2000 BCE Sulfur S 016 China, India
2000 - 1500 BCE Mercury Hg 80 China, India, Egypt
1000 BCE Zinc Zn 30 Judea, India, Nagarjuna
1000 BCE Bismuth Bi 83 Egypt, Greece, Rome, China, FranceParacelsus, Georgius Agricola, Claude François Geoffroy
1669 Phosphorus P 015 HamburgHennig Brand
1735 Cobalt Co 27 StockholmGeorg Brandt
1750 Platinum Pt 78 LondonAntonio de Ulloa, Charles Wood, William Brownrigg, William Hyde Wollaston, Smithson Tennant
1751 Nickel Ni 28 LosAxel Fredrik Cronstedt
1755, 1808 Magnesium Mg 012 Glasgow, LondonJoseph Black, Humphry Davy
1770 - 1774 Manganese Mn 25 Uppsala, FalunTorbern Bergman, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Johan Gottlieb Gahn
1772 Nitrogen N 007 EdinburghDaniel Rutherford
1774, 1808 Barium Ba 56 Uppsala, LondonCarl Wilhelm Scheele, Humphry Davy
1774 Oxygen O 008 Joseph Priestley, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Antoine Lavoisier
1774, 1810 Chlorine Cl 017 Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Humphry Davy
1778, 1781 Molybdenum Mo 42 UppsalaCarl Wilhelm Scheele, Peter Jacob Hjelm
1781, 1783 Tungsten W 74 Uppsala, BergaraTorbern Bergman, Juan José Elhuyar, Fausto Elhuyar
1782 Tellurium Te 52 TransylvaniaFranz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein, Martin Heinrich Klaproth
1784 Hydrogen H 001 Henry Cavendish
1789, 1824 Zirconium Zr 40 Berlin, StockholmMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius
1789, 1841 Uranium U 92 Berlin, ParisMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Eugène-Melchoir Péligot
1790, 1808 Strontium Sr 38 LondonAdair Crawford, William Cruikshank, Humphry Davy
1791 - 1910 Titanium Ti 22 Creed, Berlin, Stockholm, TroyWilliam Gregor, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Matthew Hunter
1794 - 1843 Yttrium Y 39 Åbo, StockholmJohan Gadolin, Carl Gustaf Mosander
1797 Chromium Cr 24 ParisLouis Nicolas Vauquelin
1798, 1828 Beryllium Be 004 Paris, BerlinLouis Nicolas Vauquelin, Friedrich Wöhler, Antoine Bussy
1801 Niobium Nb 41 LondonCharles Hatchett
1802 Tantalum Ta 73 UppsalaAnders Gustaf Ekeberg
1803, 1830, 1867 Vanadium V 23 Mexico City, Stockholm, ManchesterAndrés Manuel del Río, Nils Gabriel Sefström, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Henry Enfield Roscoe
1803, 1839 Cerium Ce 58 Berlin, Bastnäs, StockholmMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Wilhelm Hisinger, Carl Gustaf Mosander
1804 Rhodium Palladium Iridium Osmium LondonWilliam Hyde Wollaston, Smithson Tennant
1807 Potassium K 019 LondonHumphry Davy
1807 Sodium Na 011 LondonHumphry Davy
1808 Calcium Ca 020 LondonHumphry Davy
1808 Boron B 005 London, ParisHumphry Davy, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Louis Jacques Thénard
1811 Iodine I 53 DijonBernard Courtois
1817, 1821 Lithium Li 003 Stockholm, LondonJohan August Arfwedson, William Thomas Brande
1817 Cadmium Cd 48 GöttingenKarl Samuel Leberecht Hermann, Friedrich Stromeyer, Johann Christoff Heinrich Roloff
1817 Selenium Se 34 StockholmJöns Jacob Berzelius, Johan Gottlieb Gahn
1823 Silicon Si 014 StockholmJöns Jacob Berzelius
1825, 1827 Aluminium Al 013 Copenhagen, BerlinHans Christian Ørsted, Friedrich Wöhler
1825, 1826 Bromine Br 35 HeidelbergCarl Jacob Löwig, Leopold Gmelin, Antoine Jérôme Balard
1829 Thorium Th 90 StockholmMorten Thrane Esmark, Jöns Jacob Berzelius
1839 Lanthanum La 57 StockholmCarl Gustaf Mosander
1843 Terbium Tb 65 StockholmCarl Gustaf Mosander
1843 Erbium Er 68 StockholmCarl Gustaf Mosander
1844 Ruthenium Ru 44 KazanKarl Ernst Claus
1860, 1882 Caesium Cs 55 HeidelbergRobert Bunsen, Gustav Kirchhoff, Carl Setterberg
1861 Rubidium Rb 37 HeidelbergRobert Bunsen, Gustav Kirchhoff
1861 - 1862 Thallium Tl 81 London, LilleWilliam Crookes, Claude-Auguste Lamy
1863 Indium In 49 FreibergFerdinand Reich, Hieronymous Theodor Richter
1868 - 1895 Helium He 002 Guntur, West HampsteadPierre Janssen, Norman Lockyer, Luigi Palmieri, William Ramsay, Per Teodor Cleve, Nils Abraham Langlet
1869 Periodic table Dmitri Mendeleev
1875 Gallium Ga 31 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
1878, 1907 Ytterbium Yb 70 Geneva, ParisJean Charles Galissard de Marignac, Georges Urbain
1878 - 1879 Holmium Ho 67 Geneva, UppsalaMarc Delafontaine, Jacques-Louis Soret, Per Teodor Cleve
1879 Thulium Tm 69 UppsalaPer Teodor Cleve
1879 Scandium Sc 21 UppsalaLars Fredrik Nilson
1879 Samarium Sm 62 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
1880 Gadolinium Gd 64 GenevaJean Charles Galissard de Marignac
1885 Praseodymium Pr 59 ViennaCarl Auer von Welsbach
1885 Neodymium Nd 60 ViennaCarl Auer von Welsbach
1886 Fluorine F 009 ParisHenri Moissan
1886 Dysprosium Dy 66 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
1886 Germanium Ge 32 FreibergClemens Winkler
1890 - 1901 Europium Eu 63 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Eugène-Anatole Demarçay
1894 Argon Ar 018 LondonJohn William Strutt Lord Rayleigh, William Ramsay
1898 Krypton Kr 36 LondonWilliam Ramsay, Morris Travers
1898 Neon Ne 010 LondonWilliam Ramsay, Morris Travers
1898 Xenon Xe 54 LondonWilliam Ramsay, Morris Travers
1898 Polonium Po 84 ParisMarie Curie, Pierre Curie
1898 Radium Ra 88 ParisMarie Curie, Pierre Curie
1899 - 1910 Radon Rn 86 Paris, Montreal, Halle, LondonMarie Curie, Pierre Curie, Robert Bowie Owens, Ernest Rutherford, Friedrich Ernst Dorn, André-Louis Debierne, William Ramsay, Robert Whytlaw-Gray
1899, 1902 Actinium Ac 89 Paris, BrunswickAndré-Louis Debierne, Friedrich Oskar Giesel
1907 Lutetium Lu 71 Paris, Vienna, DurhamGeorges Urbain, Carl Auer von Welsbach, Charles James
1908, 1925 Rhenium Re 75 London, BerlinMasataka Ogawa, Walter Noddack, Ida Tacke, Otto Berg
1913 - 1918 Protactinium Pa 91 Karlsruhe, Glasgow, BerlinOswald Helmuth Göhring, Georg von Hevesy, John Arnold Cranston, Frederick Soddy, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner
1923 Hafnium Hf 72 CopenhagenDirk Coster, Georg von Hevesy
1937 Technetium Tc 43 PalermoEmilio Segrè, Carlo Perrier
1939 Francium Fr 87 ParisMarguerite Perey
1940 Astatine At 85 BerkeleyDale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, Emilio Segrè
1940 Neptunium Np 93 BerkeleyEdwin McMillan, Philip Abelson
1940 Plutonium Pu 94 BerkeleyGlenn T. Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, Joseph W. Kennedy, Edwin McMillan
1944 Curium Cm 96 Berkeley, ChicagoGlenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, Albert Ghiorso
1944 Americium Am 95 Berkeley, ChicagoGlenn T. Seaborg, Leon O. Morgan, Ralph A. James, Albert Ghiorso
1945 Promethium Pm 61 Oak RidgeCharles D. Coryell, Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin
1949Berkelium Bk 97 BerkeleyGlenn T. Seaborg, Albert Ghiorso, Stanley Gerald Thompson
1950 Californium Cf 98 BerkeleyStanley Gerald Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso, Glenn T. Seaborg
1952 Einsteinium Es 99 Berkeley, Argonne, Los AlamosAlbert Ghiorso and co-workers at Berkeley, Argonne, and Los Alamos
1952 Fermium Fm 100 Berkeley, Argonne, Los AlamosAlbert Ghiorso and co-workers at Berkeley, Argonne, and Los Alamos
1955 Mendelevium Md 101 BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Bernard G. Harvey, Gregory R. Choppin, Stanley Gerald Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg
1958 Nobelium No 102 Dubna, BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, John R. Walton, Glenn T. Seaborg, E. D. Donets, V. A. Shchegolev, V. A. Ermakov
1961 - 1971 Lawrencium Lr 103 Berkeley, DubnaAlbert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon Larsh, Robert M. Latimer, Georgy Flerov, I. Zvara, G. M. Ter-Akopian, V. A. Shchegolev, V. L. Mikheev
1969 Rutherfordium Rf 104 BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Matti Nurmia, James Andrew Harris, Kari Eskola, Pirkko Eskola
1970 Dubnium Db 105 Dubna, BerkeleyGeorgy Flyorov, V. A. Druin, A. G. Demin, Yu. V. Lobanov, Nikolai Konstantinovich Skobelev, G. N. Akap’ev, B. V. Fefilov, I. V. Kolesov, K. A. Gavrilov, Yu. P. Kharitonov, L. P. Chelnokov, Albert Ghiorso, Matti Nurmia, James Andrew Harris, Kari Eskola, Pirkko Eskola
1974 Seaborgium Sg 106 BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Joachim Michael Nitschke, José R. Alonso, Carol T. Alonso, Matti Nurmia, Glenn T. Seaborg, E. Kenneth Hulet, Ronald W. Lougheed
1981 Bohrium Bh 107 DarmstadtGottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, Sigurd Hofmann, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Willibrord Reisdorf, Karl-Heinz Schmidt, J. R. H. Schneider, W. F. W. Schneider, Christoph-Clemens Sahm, B. Thuma
1982 Meitnerium Mt 109 DarmstadtGottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, Sigurd Hofmann, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Klaus Poppensieker, Willibrord Reisdorf, Karl-Heinz Schmidt, K. Schneider, Christoph-Clemens Sahm, Detlef Vermeulen
1984 Hassium Hs 108 DarmstadtGottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Sigurd Hofmann, Fritz Peter Heßberger, J. Keller, Klaus Poppensieker, Willibrord Reisdorf, Karl-Heinz Schmidt, H.-J. Schött, Matti Leino, R. Hingmann
1994 Darmstadtium Ds 110 DarmstadtSigurd Hofmann, Gottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Fritz Peter Heßberger, H. J. Schött, Victor Ninov
1994 Roentgenium Rg 111 DarmstadtSigurd Hofmann, Victor Ninov, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Gottfried Münzenberg, H. J. Schött
1996 Copernicium Cn 112 DarmstadtSigurd Hofmann, Victor Ninov, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Gottfried Münzenberg, H. J. Schött
1999 - 2007 Flerovium Fl 114 DubnaYuri Oganessian, Alexander Vladimirovich Yeremin, Andre Georgievich Popeko, Sergey L. Bogomolov, German Vladimirovich Buklanov, M. L. Chelnokov, Victor Ivanovich Chepigin, Boris N. Gikal, Vladimir A. Gorshkov, Georgy G. Gulbekian, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Anatoly Petrovich Kabachenko, Anton Yurievich Lavrentiev, Oleg Nikolaevich Malyshev, Jozef Rohach, Roman Nikolaevich Sagaidak, Sigurd Hofmann, S. Saro, G. Giardina, Kosuke Morita
2000 Livermorium Lv 116 DubnaYuri Oganessian, V. K. Utyonkov, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, G. G. Gulbekian, Sergey L. Bogomolov, B. N. Gikal, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, O. V. Ivanov, G. V. Buklanov, K. Subotic, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Ken J. Moody, John F. Wild, Nancy J. Stoyer, Mark A. Stoyer, Ronald W. Lougheed, C. A. Laue, Ye. A. Karelin, A. N. Tatarinov
2004 Moscovium Mc 115 DubnaYuri Oganessian, V. K. Utyonkoy, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, G. G. Gulbekian, Sergey L. Bogomolov, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, A. A. Voinov, G. V. Buklanov, K. Subotic, V. I. Zagrebaev, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Joshua B. Patin, Ken J. Moody, John F. Wild, Mark A. Stoyer, Nancy J. Stoyer, Dawn A. Shaughnessy, Jacqueline M. Kenneally, Ronald W. Lougheed
2006 Oganesson Og 118 DubnaYuri Oganessian, V. K. Utyonkov, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, O. V. Ivanov, A. A. Voinov, K. Subotic, V. I. Zagrebaev, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Ken J. Moody, John F. Wild, Mark A. Stoyer, Nancy J. Stoyer, C. A. Laue, Dawn A. Shaughnessy, Joshua B. Patin, Ronald W. Lougheed
2009 Tennessine Ts 117 DubnaYuri Oganessian, F. Sh. Abdullin, P. D. Bailey, D. E. Benker, M. E. Bennett, S. N. Dmitriev, J. G. Ezold, Joseph H. Hamilton, R. A. Henderson, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Yu. V. Lobanov, A. N. Mezentsev, Ken J. Moody, S. L. Nelson, A. N. Polyakov, C. E. Porter, A. V. Ramayya, F. D. Riley, James B. Roberto, M. A. Ryabinin, K. P. Rykaczewski, R. N. Sagaidak, Dawn A. Shaughnessy, I. V. Shirokovsky, Mark A. Stoyer, V. G. Subbotin, R. Sudowe, A. M. Sukhov, Yu. S. Tsyganov, V. K. Utyonkov, A. A. Voinov, G. K. Vostokin, P. A. Wilk
2012 Nihonium Nh 113 WakoKosuke Morita, Kouji Morimoto, Daiya Kaji, Takahiro Akiyama, Shin-ichi Goto, Hiromitsu Haba, Eiji Ideguchi, Kenji Katori, Hiriyuki Koura, Hidetoshi Kikunaga, Hisaaki Kudo, Testuya Ohnishi, Akira Ozawa, Nozomi Sato, Toshimi Suda, Keisuke Sueki, Fuyuki Tokanai, Takayuki Yamaguchi, Akira Yoneda, Atsushi Yoshida

Elements by atomic number

The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom.

Atomic
number
Element Date Location
1 Hydrogen 1784 LondonHenry Cavendish
2 Helium 1868 - 1895 Guntur, West HampsteadPierre Janssen, Norman Lockyer, Luigi Palmieri, William Ramsay, Per Teodor Cleve, Nils Abraham Langlet
3 Lithium 1817, 1821 Stockholm, LondonJohan August Arfwedson, William Thomas Brande
4 Beryllium 1798, 1828 Paris, BerlinLouis Nicolas Vauquelin, Friedrich Wöhler, Antoine Bussy
5 Boron 1808 London, ParisHumphry Davy, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Louis Jacques Thénard
6 Carbon 4000 BCE China, India, Egypt, Sumeria
7 Nitrogen 1772 EdinburghDaniel Rutherford
8 Oxygen 1774 Uppsala, London, ParisCarl Wilhelm Scheele, Joseph Priestley, Antoine Lavoisier
9 Fluorine 1886 ParisHenri Moissan
10 Neon 1898 LondonWilliam Ramsay, Morris Travers
11 Sodium 1807 LondonHumphry Davy
12 Magnesium 1755 Glasgow, LondonJoseph Black, Humphry Davy
13 Aluminium 1825, 1827 Copenhagen, BerlinHans Christian Ørsted, Friedrich Wöhler
14 Silicon 1823 StockholmJöns Jacob Berzelius
15 Phosphorus 1669 HamburgHennig Brand
16 Sulfur 2000 BCE China, India
17 Chlorine 1810 Uppsala, LondonCarl Wilhelm Scheele, Humphry Davy
18 Argon 1894 LondonJohn William Strutt Lord Rayleigh, William Ramsay
19 Potassium 1807 LondonHumphry Davy
20 Calcium 1808 LondonHumphry Davy
21 Scandium 1879 UppsalaLars Fredrik Nilson
22 Titanium 1791 - 1910 Creed, Berlin, Stockholm, TroyWilliam Gregor, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Matthew Hunter
23 Vanadium 1803, 1830, 1867 Mexico City, Stockholm, ManchesterAndrés Manuel del Río, Nils Gabriel Sefström, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Henry Enfield Roscoe
24 Chromium 1797 ParisLouis Nicolas Vauquelin
25 Manganese 1770 - 1774 Uppsala, FalunTorbern Bergman, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Johan Gottlieb Gahn
26 Iron 3200 BCE Gerzeh
27 Cobalt 1735 StockholmGeorg Brandt
28 Nickel 1751 LosAxel Fredrik Cronstedt
29 Copper 8700 BCE Middle East
30 Zinc 1000 BCE Judea, India, Nagarjuna
31 Gallium 1875 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
32 Germanium 1886 FreibergClemens Winkler
33 Arsenic 2500 BCE Near East
34 Selenium 1817 StockholmJöns Jacob Berzelius, Johan Gottlieb Gahn
35 Bromine 1825, 1826 HeidelbergCarl Jacob Löwig, Leopold Gmelin, Antoine Jérôme Balard
36 Krypton 1898 LondonWilliam Ramsay, Morris Travers
37 Rubidium 1861 HeidelbergRobert Bunsen, Gustav Kirchhoff
38 Strontium 1790, 1808 LondonAdair Crawford, William Cruikshank, Humphry Davy
39 Yttrium 1794 - 1843 Åbo, StockholmJohan Gadolin, Carl Gustaf Mosander
40 Zirconium 1789, 1824 Berlin, StockholmMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius
41 Niobium 1801 LondonCharles Hatchett
42 Molybdenum 1778, 1781 UppsalaCarl Wilhelm Scheele, Peter Jacob Hjelm
43 Technetium 1937 PalermoEmilio Segrè, Carlo Perrier
44 Ruthenium 1844 KazanKarl Ernst Claus
45 Rhodium 1804 LondonWilliam Hyde Wollaston
46 Palladium 1804 LondonWilliam Hyde Wollaston
47 Silver 4000 BCE Asia Minor
48 Cadmium 1817 GöttingenKarl Samuel Leberecht Hermann, Friedrich Stromeyer, Johann Christoff Heinrich Roloff
49 Indium 1863 FreibergFerdinand Reich, Hieronymous Theodor Richter
50 Tin 3000 BCE Mesopotamia, Balkans
51 Antimony 3100 BCE Egypt
52 Tellurium 1782 TransylvaniaFranz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein, Martin Heinrich Klaproth
53 Iodine 1811 DijonBernard Courtois
54 Xenon 1898 LondonWilliam Ramsay, Morris Travers
55 Caesium 1860, 1882 HeidelbergRobert Bunsen, Gustav Kirchhoff, Carl Setterberg
56 Barium 1774, 1808 Uppsala, LondonCarl Wilhelm Scheele, Humphry Davy
57 Lanthanum 1839 StockholmCarl Gustaf Mosander
58 Cerium 1803, 1839 Berlin, Bastnäs, StockholmMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Wilhelm Hisinger, Carl Gustaf Mosander
59 Praseodymium 1885 ViennaCarl Auer von Welsbach
60 Neodymium 1885 ViennaCarl Auer von Welsbach
61 Promethium 1945 Oak RidgeCharles D. Coryell, Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin
62 Samarium 1879 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
63 Europium 1890 - 1901 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Eugène-Anatole Demarçay
64 Gadolinium 1880 GenevaJean Charles Galissard de Marignac
65 Terbium 1843 StockholmCarl Gustaf Mosander
66 Dysprosium 1886 ParisPaul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
67 Holmium 1878 - 1879 Geneva, UppsalaMarc Delafontaine, Per Teodor Cleve
68 Erbium 1843 StockholmCarl Gustaf Mosander
69 Thulium 1879 UppsalaPer Teodor Cleve
70 Ytterbium 1878, 1907 Geneva, ParisJean Charles Galissard de Marignac, Georges Urbain
71 Lutetium 1907 Paris, Vienna, DurhamGeorges Urbain, Carl Auer von Welsbach, Charles James
72 Hafnium 1923 CopenhagenDirk Coster, Georg von Hevesy
73 Tantalum 1802 UppsalaAnders Gustaf Ekeberg
74 Tungsten 1781, 1783 Uppsala, BergaraTorbern Bergman, Juan José Elhuyar, Fausto Elhuyar
75 Rhenium 1908, 1925 London, BerlinMasataka Ogawa, Walter Noddack, Ida Tacke, Otto Berg
76 Osmium 1804 LondonSmithson Tennant
77 Iridium 1804 LondonSmithson Tennant
78 Platinum 1750 LondonAntonio de Ulloa, Charles Wood, William Brownrigg, William Hyde Wollaston, Smithson Tennant
79 Gold 4600 BCE Varna Necropolis
80 Mercury 2000 - 1500 BCE China, India, Egypt
81 Thallium 1861 - 1862 London, LilleWilliam Crookes, Claude-Auguste Lamy
82 Lead 6400 BCE Çatalhöyük
83 Bismuth 1000 BCE Egypt, Greece, Rome, China, FranceParacelsus, Georgius Agricola, Claude François Geoffroy
84 Polonium 1898 ParisMarie Curie, Pierre Curie
85 Astatine 1940 BerkeleyDale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, Emilio Segrè
86 Radon 1899 - 1910 Paris, Montreal, Halle, LondonMarie Curie, Pierre Curie, Robert Bowie Owens, Ernest Rutherford, Friedrich Ernst Dorn, André-Louis Debierne, William Ramsay, Robert Whytlaw-Gray
87 Francium 1939 ParisMarguerite Perey
88 Radium 1898 ParisMarie Curie, Pierre Curie
89 Actinium 1899, 1902 Paris, BrunswickAndré-Louis Debierne, Friedrich Oskar Giesel
90 Thorium 1829 StockholmMorten Thrane Esmark, Jöns Jacob Berzelius
91 Protactinium 1913 - 1918 Karlsruhe, Glasgow, BerlinOswald Helmuth Göhring, Georg von Hevesy, John Arnold Cranston, Frederick Soddy, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner
92 Uranium 1789, 1841 Berlin, ParisMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Eugène-Melchoir Péligot
93 Neptunium 1940 BerkeleyEdwin McMillan, Philip Abelson
94 Plutonium 1940 BerkeleyGlenn T. Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, Joseph W. Kennedy, Edwin McMillan
95 Americium 1944 Berkeley, ChicagoGlenn T. Seaborg, Leon O. Morgan, Ralph A. James, Albert Ghiorso
96 Curium 1944 Berkeley, ChicagoRalph A. James
97 Berkelium 1949 BerkeleyGlenn T. Seaborg, Albert Ghiorso, Stanley Gerald Thompson
98 Californium 1950 BerkeleyStanley Gerald Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso, Glenn T. Seaborg
99 Einsteinium 1952 Berkeley, Argonne, Los AlamosAlbert Ghiorso and co-workers
100 Fermium 1952 Berkeley, Argonne, Los AlamosAlbert Ghiorso and co-workers
101 Mendelevium 1955 BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Bernard G. Harvey, Gregory R. Choppin, Stanley Gerald Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg
102 Nobelium 1958 Berkeley, DubnaAlbert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, John R. Walton, Glenn T. Seaborg, E. D. Donets, V. A. Shchegolev, V. A. Ermakov
103 Lawrencium 1961 - 1971 Berkeley, DubnaAlbert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon Larsh, Robert M. Latimer, Georgy Flyorov, I. Zvara, G. M. Ter-Akopian, V. A. Shchegolev, V. L. Mikheev
104 Rutherfordium 1969 BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Matti Nurmia, James Andrew Harris, Kari Eskola, Pirkko Eskola
105 Dubnium 1970 Dubna, BerkeleyGeorgy Flyorov, V. A. Druin, A. G. Demin, Yu. V. Lobanov, Nikolai Konstantinovich Skobelev, G. N. Akap’ev, B. V. Fefilov, I. V. Kolesov, K. A. Gavrilov, Yu. P. Kharitonov, L. P. Chelnokov, Albert Ghiorso, Matti Nurmia, James Andrew Harris, Kari Eskola, Pirkko Eskola
106 Seaborgium 1974 BerkeleyAlbert Ghiorso, Joachim Michael Nitschke, José R. Alonso, Carol T. Alonso, Matti Nurmia, Glenn T. Seaborg, E. Kenneth Hulet, Ronald W. Lougheed>
107 Bohrium 1981 DarmstadtGottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, Sigurd Hofmann, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Willibrord Reisdorf, Karl-Heinz Schmidt, J. R. H. Schneider, W. F. W. Schneider, Christoph-Clemens Sahm, B. Thuma
108 Hassium 1984 DarmstadtGottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Sigurd Hofmann, Fritz Peter Heßberger, J. Keller, Klaus Poppensieker, Willibrord Reisdorf, Karl-Heinz Schmidt, H.-J. Schött, Matti Leino, R. Hingmann
109 Meitnerium 1982 DarmstadtGottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, Sigurd Hofmann, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Klaus Poppensieker, Willibrord Reisdorf, Karl-Heinz Schmidt, K. Schneider, Christoph-Clemens Sahm, Detlef Vermeulen
110 Darmstadtium 1994 DarmstadtSigurd Hofmann, Gottfried Münzenberg, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Fritz Peter Heßberger, H. J. Schött, Victor Ninov
111 Roentgenium 1994 DarmstadtSigurd Hofmann, Victor Ninov, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Gottfried Münzenberg, H. J. Schött
112 Copernicium 1996 DarmstadtSigurd Hofmann, Victor Ninov, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Gottfried Münzenberg, H. J. Schött
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114 Flerovium 1999 - 2007 DubnaYuri Oganessian, Alexander Vladimirovich Yeremin, Andre Georgievich Popeko, Sergey L. Bogomolov, German Vladimirovich Buklanov, M. L. Chelnokov, Victor Ivanovich Chepigin, Boris N. Gikal, Vladimir A. Gorshkov, Georgy G. Gulbekian, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Anatoly Petrovich Kabachenko, Anton Yurievich Lavrentiev, Oleg Nikolaevich Malyshev, Jozef Rohach, Roman Nikolaevich Sagaidak, Sigurd Hofmann, S. Saro, G. Giardina, Kosuke Morita
115 Moscovium 2004 DubnaYuri Oganessian, V. K. Utyonkoy, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, G. G. Gulbekian, Sergey L. Bogomolov, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, A. A. Voinov, G. V. Buklanov, K. Subotic, V. I. Zagrebaev, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Joshua B. Patin, Ken J. Moody, John F. Wild, Mark A. Stoyer, Nancy J. Stoyer, Dawn A. Shaughnessy, Jacqueline M. Kenneally, Ronald W. Lougheed
116 Livermorium 2000 DubnaYuri Oganessian, V. K. Utyonkov, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, G. G. Gulbekian, Sergey L. Bogomolov, B. N. Gikal, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, O. V. Ivanov, G. V. Buklanov, K. Subotic, Michael Grigorievich Itkis, Ken J. Moody, John F. Wild, Nancy J. Stoyer, Mark A. Stoyer, Ronald W. Lougheed, C. A. Laue, Ye. A. Karelin, A. N. Tatarinov
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